2.6-2.10

The Horse in Motion

Eadweard Muybridge
(Film)

Arranged a line of 12 cameras to take a sequence of 12 pictures of a running horse. The cameras connected to cables stretched across the racetrack were tripped as the horse passed
All four legs off the ground at once
Trip to the Moon (1902)

Georges Méliès
(Black and white film)

Group of astronomers flies to the moon’s right eye and then astronomers encounter wondrous sights and moon inhabitants called Selenites
Birth of a Nation

D.W. Griffith
(Black and white film)

Hollywood’s first blockbuster and one of the first films to tell an epic story
New techniques and original editing styles to make transitions between scenes and vary the sense of pace
-Symbolism, gesture, inter-titles (onscreen texts)
-Reinforces old southern racist views (Klu Klux Klan)
Citizen Kane(1941)

Orson Welles
(Black and white film)

Box-office failure but hailed by critics
Charles Foster Kane (William Randolph Hearst)
-Fabricated Newspaper headlines, newsreel, flashbacks, dramatic lighting, innovative editing, natural sound, elaborate sets, moving camera shots, deep focus, and low camera angles
Wizard of Oz

Victor Fleming
(Color film)

Combined black and white with color
Singing in the Rain (1952)
Looked back to the silent era by telling the story of a silent-film company making the difficult transition to sound
Dialogue stops completely and song and dance move the story along
The Cameraman’s Revenge(1912)

Wladyslaw Starewicz
(Animation)

Stop-action animation film of bugs
Mr. Beetle goes to the city and meets a burlesque dancer in Gay Dragonfly, grasshopper is jealous so he films Mr. Beetle and the dancer. Beetle returns home and finds his wife with a cricket, beats up the lover and takes wife to the cinema. Indiscretions are projected over the big-screen
Spirited Away(2001)

Hayao Miyazaki
(animation)

Miyazaki created the storyboards to be used as the basis for the animation, which were completed by a team of artists.

Backgrounds were drawn on transparent paper to be used for an entire scene, but a separate drawing had to be made for each stage in the movement of any object.
12-30 drawings were required for every second of Spirited Away, thus 125 minutes required 90,000 drawings and perhaps as many as 200,000

Star Wars (1977)

George Lucas
(Special Effects)

Earned $194 million
-on location shots
-super realistic paintings
-detailed models
-computer-generated and digitally timed effects
Amélie

Jean-Pierre Jeunet
(Special Effects)

Adds animation and special effects to live action movie
shy 23 year old waitress
-Heart beats out of her chest
melts into a puddle on the floor

Reveals magical qualities of everyday life

The Cabinet of Dr. Calgary (1920)

Robert Wiene

Psychiatrist Dr. Calgary and his servant Cesare who can foretell the future
-Calgary suspects the murders of Cesare
-its all in his head
-Expressionist sets
An Inconvenient Truth

Davis Guggenheim
(Documentary)

Global warming
Al Gore
Meshes of the Afternoon

Maya Deren
(Art Film) (visual poetry)

Follow’s a woman’s experience of an afternoon shuffled with her dreams after she drifted off to sleep in a chair
Two repeated sequences: Cloaked woman with a mirror over her face walks down the road, woman enters a house and walks up the stairs
(appear to be playing in the woman’s mind)
-Time is circular, mimics a dream
-Reflects a state of mind, and can be best understood as visual poetry
Flat is Beautiful

Sadie Benning
(Art Film)(autobiography)

Uses a Fischer Price Pixel Vision
autobio of growing up as a lesbian
-identity and sexuality
-Isolation and persecution
Fantastic Prayers (1999)

Constance DeJong, Tony Oursler, Stephen Vitiello
(Interactive Digital Media)

Fragments of texts, images, and sounds constantly shift and change rather than being restricted by fixed boundaries
Combines 8 environments that visitor archaeologists like to explore to uncover fragmentary narratives, memories, objects, and places
Place Where Lost Things Go, Ludlow Street, Graveyard, Hair, Natotorium, Empathy Wheel, Walls that Speak, and Jacket
Road Movie

iMobLab
(Interactive Digital Media)

Traveled across Japan in fall of 2005
five cameras recorded the journey and uploaded to the Web every five minutes which were configured into files in the form of patterns that allowed Internet viewers to print out and fold digital origami replicas of the bus and its exterior to make their own road movie
Theater Piece No. 1

John Cage
(Performance art)

unrecorded collar in poetry, music, dance, and paintings by faculty and staff of Black Mountain College in NC
Emphasis on performance rather than documentation
Coyote, I Like America and America Likes Me

Joseph Beuys
(Performance art)

Explores his own German heritage and wider issues of social identity
-nomads rescued him from crash in WWII
-does not speak or interact with anyone during 5 day performance
-Transported from the airport to the gallery in an ambulance wrapped in felt
-Confined in a gallery with a Coyote, a trickster or mischevious figure in native American mythology
-Activate spiritual healing and reconciliation
Following Piece

Vito Acconci
(Performance art)

“Choosing a person at random, in the street, a new location, each day.”
23 days, longest 9 hours following someone
ended when he entered a person’s private place (home/office)
The House with the Ocean View

Marina Abramović
(Performance art)

12 days she did not eat, speak or write
performed everyday activities: bathroom, sleeping, drinking, dreaming, looking, and thinking
-calls attention to the simplicity and meaningfulness of everyday life
Untitled (Your Gaze Hits the Side of My Face)

Barbara Kruger
(Conceptual Art)

Combines found images and words to give them new meaning
addresses society and stereotypes
feminist overtone (treatment of women)
-Beauty is shown to be just a coating or surface and the viewer realizes that when we gaze at beauty we become voyeurs
“The true artist helps the world by revealing mystic truths”

Bruce Nauman
(Conceptual Art)

Inspired by a beer sign
-addresses the metaphysical concern about the role of the artist in a way that does not initially look like art
Wish Tree for Liverpool

Yoko Ono
(Conceptual Art)

Consists of typed instructions, open-ended and serve as a beginning point rather than a final product
The Store

Claes Oldenburg
(Installation and environments)

Break down barriers between art and life
sold hand-made painted plaster replicas of food and ordinary objects in a rented storefront
-Created an active space where people could have the experience and interact
Portraits of Cigar Store Owners

Fred Wilson
(Installation and environments)

Experience as a curator enables him to create certain experiences that have a specific effects on audience
-arranged objects in unusual ways
-showed the degradation of dignity of native Americans that is involved in turning them into advertising signs
Insurrection! (Our Tools were Rudimentary) Yet We Pressed On

Kara Walker
(Installation and environments)

Addresses overlooked history
-pre Civil-War South
-19th C silhouette cutouts (provide glimpse of subject indirectly)
-Projections that include shadows of viewers (feel included/implicated in the events that are being unfolded)
-Combines fiction and fact
Slave revolt in antebellum South
House slaves go after their master with their instruments
To Be Modern #2

Hyo-In Kim
(Traditional craft)

Faithful to the original design, but also wants to indicate something important about tradition
-Transformation(use of mesh)
-Suspended with sleeved outstretched to show weightlessness and transparency
-Apparitional effect
Seated Figure
Oaxaca Mexico
Made to be buried in the tomb of Zapotec ruler and may portray a god or possibly a companion for the deceased
Two calendar dates in Zapotec writing
Porcelain flask with decorations in blue underglaze

Ming Dynasty
(Throwing)

600 years ago
-Chinese ceramists known for their use of multiple glaze layers
-Blue then clear glaze
Flower Container

Karen Karnes
(Throwing)

Exemplifies the expert craft of the potter with its simple symmetry in individual parts conjoined into an organic asymmetrical form
-Rural American pottery traditions
-expressive sensibilities of contemporary art
Gallas Rock

Peter Voulkos
(Slab Method)

Organic and expressionist
-slabs evident in the flat planes that dominate the 8ft sculptural figure
-Known for using the clay’s naturalness (plasticity)
Portland Vessel

Roman
(Glass)

Margaret Bentick (Duchess of Portland)
Made by dip-overlay method: an elongated bubble of blue glass was partially dipped into a crucible of white glass, before the two were blown together. After cooling, the white layer was cut away to form the design
-Blue glass forms the background
Fiori di Como

Dale Chihuly
(Glass)

Use of the kind of aesthetic experience glass can bring to an interior
-2,000 blown glass flowers
Death Mask

Greece
(Metalwork)

Created by laying a thin piece of metal over an object carved to resemble a human face. The artist then hammered the surface on the thin metal until the shape and texture of the design was imprinted in the metal
-Used as a burial mask to cover the face of the departed
Salt Cellar of Francis I

Benvenuto Cellini
(Metalwork)

Object to go on king Francis’ table
-Neptune(Roman God of salty sea)
-Mother Earth
Count Your Blessings

Tilleke Schwarz
(Fiber)

Images of a trip to US and AUS
-meant to be humorous
-“mixture of contemporary influences: graffiti, icons, texts, and traditional images from samplers”
Fascination with how and what people communicate
-Quote from Sydney museum used to represent how sensitive these topics are to Australia
Tar Beach

Faith Ringgold

Combines print on fabrics
-African American experience
Studiolo

Francesco do Giorgio Martini

Symbolizes the achievements of Federico da Montefeltro (duke of Urbino)
-achievements as a ruler, military commander, collector of books, and patron of the arts
Lady of the Sennuwy
(sculpture)
Get a sense of the original block of granite
-wife of a powerful governor
Rape of a Sabine

Giambolgna

Spiral that draws the viewer around to view its many changing planes
-Political Propaganda
-Ancient story of the foundation of Rome
-Francesco de’ Medici
-Florence as a great powerful enemy of Rome
Dying Lioness
(Bas-Relief)
Reflect the great strength and bravery of King Ashurbanipal as he hunted and killed the most fearsome beast known to the Assyrians
Memorial to king Leopold of the Belgians

Susan Durant
(High-Relief)

Incise the surface more deeply for the figures closer to the viewer
-Lion and Leopold protrude the surface more than angels in the background
-illusion of depth emphasizes Leopold’s bravery in accepting the Belgian National invitation to become king
-Harriet Beecher Stowe bust sculpture
Prisoner known as the Awakening Slave

Michaelangelo
(Carving)

Rather than remove the stone progressively from all sides, he began on one side of the stone and sculpted through to the other side
Creation of the Sun and the Moon

Michaelangelo
(Carving)

Continually made many sketches of the figures intended for the nude male sculptures
-illusion of 3-D form was created using shading
-Painted the darker shades in the areas that would have been carved more deeply if the figures had been sculptures
Figure of war God Ku-ka’ ili-moku
(Carving)
Subtractive method
– God “the land-grabber”
-King Kamehameha I
-exhibits an open mouth, intended to gain divine favor
-Pig head god Lono
Sarcophagus from Cerveteri
(Modeling)
Etruscan Sarcophagus (kind of coffin)
-Sculpture paid attention to gestures and expressions of the couple shown relaxed and enjoying an Etruscan banquet
-Expressive and captures the mood of the event
Riace Warrior
(Casting)
Greece
Reflects great attention to detail and was made at a time when the Greek emphasized the perfection of the human body
-Created using the lost wax method (substitution method)
Great Serpent Mound
(Earthworks)
Mound was used in making solar observations
Spiral Jetty

Robert Smithson
(Earthworks)

Shape of shells and galaxies
-made by dumping 6,500 tons of rock and dirt, off dump trucks, gradually paving a spirraling roadbed
Constructed Head No. 2

Naum Gabo
(Construction)

Investigates the sense of space and form implied by flat planes in contrast to the solid mass of conventional sculpture
-Interested in showing its interior construction than the exterior surface
The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living

Damien Hirst
(Construction)

Unconventional materials
-formaldehyde and dead shark
-Constrast life and death
Bull’s Head

Pablo Picasso
(Readymade)

He arranged individual parts in such a way that they resemble a bull’s head yet they are recognizable as parts of a bicycle
Fountain

Marcel Duchamp
(Readymade)

Subverts our expectations by changing the context and reorienting our perception of the object
Any object by virtue is being presented by an artist can become a work of art
-Act of discovery
Light Prop for an Electric Stage

László Moholy-Nagy
(Kinetic Sculpture)

Created as a stage lighting device, eventually became a main character of a film
-motor that moves a series of perforated discs so that they cross in front of the lighting unit
-Creates a constantly changing sculptural object and the changes in lighting influence the surrounding environment
Remagine

Olafur Eliasson
(Light)

Illusion of depth is created by the projection of light onto the walls of the gallery
-challenges our perceptions of 2-D and 3-D art by using the space of the gallery and the illusion created on the flat walls
Breaking Column

George Rickey
(kinetic)

Moved by slightest current air and has a motor when no air
Asian Field

Antony Gormley

-Corpographs: 3-D equivalents of a photograph but which is left as a negative as a void
-Empty voids for eyes as a symbol for blindness
wraps us in a world of names and forms that are immediately translated into symbols, signs, emblems
The Man Who Flew into Space from His Apartment

Ilya Kabakov
(Installation)

Re-created a room (viewed but not entered) in a small apartment
-Communist propaganda posters
-The room’s inhabitant is no longer there because he has launched himself through the ceiling
-Juxtapose the private life of a comrade with the presence of the Communist state
Taos Pueblo NM
(Architecture)
Adobe houses
availability of materials
abundance of sand and clay
Maya I in the Great Plaza

(Load-Bearing Construction)

Served as a platform for temples
Temple of Amun-Re
(Post-and-lintel-construction)
Placed a series of post-and-lintel spans side by side to create a spacious interior
Temple of Athena Nike
Kallikrates
(Post-and-lintel-construction)
Adapted the systems invented by the Egyptians
Employs an elegant, thin variant of the Ionic column (Ionia origin)
-Dedicated to the worship of Athena
Pont du Guard
(Arch)
aqueduct build by romans
-made this without any mortar holding the stones together
Sainte-Foy
(Romanesque)
Use of barrel vault
Vaulted aisles counteract this outward pressure on the walls and support both sides of the central nave
Abbey Church of Saint-Denis

Abbot Suger
(Romanesque)

Gothic
with flying buttress, stained glass, pointed arches, dome roof, and rib vaults
Hagia Sophia
(Dome)
for nearly 1,000 years, it was the largest interior space of any cathedral
Horyu-ji
(wooden architecture)
Oldest wooden buildings in the world
-Japanese emperor Yomei
-cross beams and counter beams create a series of layers supporting the elaborate curved roof
Crystal Palace

Joseph Paxton
(Cast-iron)

Great Exhibition of 1851
Glasses supported by cast-iron structure
Wainwright Building

Louis Sullivan
(Steel frame construction)

Reflects the elements of a column (base, shaft, capital) in the organization of the exterior)
Mies van der Rohe
“less is more”
Bank of China
IM Pei
Sharp triangular and diamond-shaped elements define and articulate its vertical form
-feng shui
Sydney Opera House

Jørn Utzon

Reinforced concrete
-expressive character of reinforced concrete
-rooflines resemble billowing sails
Humana Building

Michael Graves
(Postmodernism)

Mix of historical styles and references
-styled Greek portico
-negative space implies columns that rise up to support a cornice and triangular glass structure similar to Greek temple
Urban block for Szechuan Chiense village

Vittori and Fisk

Promote sustainable lifestyle