Theory X basically holds the belief that people do not like work and that some kind of direct pressure and control must be exerted to get them to work effectively. These people require a rigidly managed environment, usually requiring threats of disciplinary action as a primary source of motivation. It is also held that employees will only respond to monetary rewards as an incentive to perform above the level of that which is expected. From a management point of view, autocratic (Theory X) managers like to retain most of their authority.
They make decisions on their own and inform the workers, assuming that they will carry out the instructions. Autocratic managers are often called “authoritative” for this reason; they act as “authorities”. This type of manager Is highly tasked oriented, placing a great deal of concern towards getting the Job done, with little concern for the worker’s attitudes towards the manager’s decision. This shows that autocratic managers lose ground in the work place, making way for leaders who share more authority and decision making with other members of the group. In the Other hand, Theory Y assumes that people are retrieve and eager to work.
Workers tend to desire more responsibility than Theory X workers, and have strong desires to participate In the decision making process. Theory Y workers are comfortable In a working environment which allows creatively and the opportunity to become personally involved in organizational planning. Some assumptions about Theory Y workers are emphasized in one of the texts, namely that this type of worker is far more prevalent in the work place than are Theory X workers. For instance, it is pointed out that ingenuity, creativity, and imagination are increasingly present throughout the ranks of the working population.
These people not only accept responsibility, but actively seek Increased authority. According to another of the authors studied for this project, In which the “participative” (Theory Y) leadership style is discussed, a participative leader shares decisions with the group. Also mentioned, are subtypes to this type of leader, namely the “Democratic” leader who allows the members of the working group to vote on decisions, and the “Consensual” leader who encourages group discussions and decisions which reflect the “consensus” of the group.
While for William Lucid’ Theory Z, it deals with the perceived by workers Theory Z makes certain assumptions about workers. Some of the assumptions about workers under this theory include the notion that workers tend to want to build co-operative and intimate working relationships with those that they work for and with, as well as the people that work for them. Also, Theory Z workers have a high need to be supported by the company, and highly value a working environment in which such things as family, cultures and traditions, and social institutions are regarded as equally important as the work itself.
These types of workers have a very well developed sense of order, discipline, moral obligation to work hard, and a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers. Finally, Theory Z workers, it is assumed, can be trusted to do their Jobs to their utmost ability, so long as management can be trusted to support them and look out for their well being. One of the most important tenets of this theory is that management must have a high degree of confidence in its workers in order for this type of participative management to work.
While this theory assumes that workers will be participating in the decisions f the company to a great degree, one author is careful to point out that the employees must be very knowledgeable about the various issues of the company, as well as possessing the competence to make those decisions. This author is also careful to point out, however, that management sometimes has a tendency to underestimate the ability of the workers to effectively contribute to the decision making process (Bitten).
But for this reason, Theory Z stresses the need for enabling the workers to become generalists, rather than specialists, and to increase their knowledge of the company and its processes through Job rotations and continual raining. In fact, promotions tend to be slower in this type of setting, as workers are given a much longer opportunity to receive training and more time to learn the intricacies of the company’s operations. The desire, under this theory, is to develop a work force, which has more of a loyalty towards staying with the company for an entire career, and be more permanent than in other types of settings.
It is expected that once an employee does rise to a position of high level management, they will know a great deal more about the company and how it operates, and will be able to SE Theory Z management theories effectively on the newer employees. With the above strengths and weaknesses of each theory, I would prefer Theory Y to be implemented because Theory Y has employees as more self-motivated and liking the work and so on. Creativity, ingenuity, and imagination are widely distributed among the population. People are capable of using these abilities to solve an organizational problem.
In theory, this method has much higher productivity because you rely a bit on the employee to be self-motivated and encourage participation in management decisions. This further means, that the employee actually has to like the work and get self-satisfaction from the Job duties with adequate control and less pressure. In reality, Theory X and Z are Just two opposite extremes and Y is Just in equal equilibrium between managers and workers. 4. Describe at least three factors that affect human behavior. Beings influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics.
The behavior of people falls within a range with some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits. N sociology, behavior is considered as having no meaning, being not directed at other people and thus is the most basic human action. A. Human behavior can be affected in many ways, one of which is genetics. Everyone has different traits such as intelligence and shyness which they inherit through heredity. These traits impact human behavior and there are indications that behavior is affected by genetics. First, behavior can be different in different species.
People behave differently from how a chickadee behaves for example. Second, behavior can be reproduced in consecutive generations of humans. In each generation of people there will be similar behaviors that occur. Third, biological structures can be alternated resulting in behavior changes. For example, if one develops a brain injury, one can change from behaving politely to being aggressive. Another way behavior can be affected is by behaviors that are brought up in families. For example, certain behaviors that can occur from a mental illness that runs in the family.
Fourth, evolutionary history of genetics has a big impact on behavior. All species have DNA which can bind them all together. Geneticists are now able to introduce or exclude specific genes, resulting in different traits and behaviors arising from those traits. One gene does not create behavior. Behaviors result from a combination of genes, and these genes can be affected by different factors. Factors such as genes and environment are included in the growth of any trait. Genes can be manipulated and modified and the environment can increase certain outcomes of genes.
Understanding genetics in relation to behavior is difficult and there are many things still being studied about this b. Social norm. Individual’s behavior changes according to the group they go into, which allows norms to provide an order in society. Without social norms, it would be difficult for human society to function; humans’ beings need norms in order to guide and direct their behaviors. Norms are used to create roles in society, which allows people to function properly in different social class structures. These are some of the reasons why people, believe that social norms are crucial to human behavior. C. Core Faith.
This faith can be through religion, philosophy, culture, or personal belief and often affects the way a person can behave. 0% of the United States public claims some sort of belief in a higher power, which makes religion a large importance in society.  It is only natural for something that plays such a large role in society to have an effect on human behavior. For example, when a lesbian couple was featured on the J Penny Mother’s Day advertisement in 2012, thousands of Christian motherboard’s the pro-gay marriage company.  Morals are another factor of core faith that affects the way a person behaves.
Emotions connected to morals including shame, pride, and discomfort and these can change the way a errors acts. Most importantly, shame and guilt have a large impact on behavior.  Lastly, culture highly affects human behavior. The beliefs of certain cultures are taught to children from such a young age that they are greatly affected as they grow up. These beliefs are taken into consideration throughout daily life, which leads to the way different cultures and areas of the world interact and act 5. Describe a transformational leader. Do you know of anybody in the nursing profession who is a transactional leader?
Transformational leaders are inspirational leadership that promotes employee placements, attends to needs and motives of followers, inspires through optimism, influences changes in perception, provides intellectual stimulation, and encourages followers activities. Not only are these leaders concerned and involved in the process; they are also focused on helping every member of the group succeed as well. They leads to positive changes in those who follow. Transformational leaders not only challenge the status quo; they also encourage creativity among followers.
They also involved in offering support and encouragement to individual followers. There are a lot of leaders/nurses that are practicing this style and good example are the founders of “NAG NARDS” organization, in the leadership of the President, Lea Primitive G. Sumacs- Opaque, RAN, ART, MAN, MPH, Deed. D. It is a non- profit, non-stock association that envision be a strong association of nursing professionals who care as Nurse Advocates for Rights and Socio-political responsibility. They promote the rights and welfare of the many normalized Filipino nurses here and abroad.
They Lead in the health care system which ultimately redound to more efficient and effective service to the sick and impoverished leading to a better quality life for all. They may not get anything momentarily, but they give such effort to motivate and Exceeding standards towards the highest professional, ethical, moral and legal conduct . II. Discuss the differences of the if leadership style: 1 . Democratic, Authoritarian, and Laissez-fairer Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people.
There are three types according to Kurt Lenin one of which is the autocratic or authoritarian. This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate conditions to use it is when you eave all the information to solve the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well motivated. Some people tend to think of this style as a vehicle for yelling, using demeaning language, and leading by threats and abusing their power.
This is not the authoritarian style, rather it is an abusive, unprofessional style called “bossing people around. ” It has no place in a leader’s repertoire. The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare occasions. If you have the time and want to gain more commitment and motivation from your employees, then you should use the participative style. Another, this style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority.
Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. Another is the participative or democratic style. This style involves the leader to do and how to do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness; rather it is a sign of strength that your employees will respect. The other style which is the delegation or laissez-fair, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made.
This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate certain tasks. This is not a style to use so that you can blame others when things go wrong, rather this is a style to be used when you fully trust and confidence in the people below you. Do not be afraid to use it, however, use it wisely! 2. Transformational and Transactional A transformational leader is one that has the ability to inspire. Typically the definition of leader in general is someone that is able to inspire or motivate people to do things.
A transformational leader is one that displays this ability more than any other type of leader. Transformational leaders are leaders that often times will ask a lot of questions when talking with their employees. They will normally make solid eye contact and stop everything so that the employee understands that they are being focused on. This type of leader is one that will take extra care to ensure that their employees are cared for and their needs are met. To keep the concept of a transformational leader simple, it is best put as a leader that cares about the feelings of their employees.
Often times the successful transformational leader is going to take extra effort to find out how employees under them feel about changes that are being made, ask for their opinion on a variety of matters, and attempt to motivate them to better their own situation. For this type of leader it is about empowering each individual employee to push harder for their own reasons and not necessarily because the company says so. In the other hand, transactional leadership, rewards and punishments are contingent upon the performance of the followers.
The leader views the relationship between managers and subordinates as an exchange – you give me something for something in return. When subordinates perform well, they receive some type of reward. When they perform poorly, they will be punished in some way. Rules, procedures and standards are essential in transactional leadership. Followers are not encouraged to be creative or to find new solutions to problems. Research has found that transactional leadership tends to be most effective in tuitions where problems are simple and clearly-defined.
While transactional leadership can be effective in some situations, it is generally considered an insufficient and may prevent both leaders and followers from achieving their full potential. 3. Which of the above leadership styles do you think your immediate manager adhere to? Support your assumption. Since I am working in a Diagnostic Center/Clinic my immediate manager is Medical Operations Manger which is a Physician and I believe implementing a delegation or laissez-fair style. We are delegated in different testing centers with certain responsibilities and goals.
Like for example in Spectrometry,we have tallest 100 patient a day and my manager only accumulate the data. It is now us staff nurses to decide and strategies how to handle various situations in the field to meet the given tasks. MODULE II l. Answer ALL learning activities on page 21 . 1 . Differentiate leader from manager, management from leadership. I’ll begin by defining a leader and a manger, according to the module, manager is a person appointed officially to the position whose function is to plan, organize, lead and control. While a Leader is a person who enables to work together to achieve the objectives set for certain purpose. Other way, the manager administers; the leader innovates. The manager maintains; the leader develops. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust. The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing. In my work, I consider our Medical Operations Manager to be the Manager peers because she does the planning, organizing, control and gives the staff delegation in each unit. She gives the tasks and expects things to be made accordingly to her plan. My leader whom I consider is our Senor Nurse, she guides us and gives advice how to accomplish the tasks faster.
Calls for a meeting to raise our encores in a less formal manner, wherein she is too humble to suggest better ideas. Now, to Leadership and management , they must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. Management is The process of dealing with or controlling things or people and Leadership is the process of empowering people through persuasion, but they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Manager must possess leadership and a good management to act in its functions, while a leader do not require to familiarize management to be an effective leader. . Observe a nurse manager in your work place and note the different management activities she perform an identified by Tappet. I consider my manager, the Medical Operations Manager, as my leader, being described my Tappet. She assumes leadership wherein she guides us on our activities, though not through physical attachments. She allots one-on-one conversations to point out concerns in the area. She asks for my ideas and conceptions and eventually voice outs her insights. She gives as freedom to strategies and plan for service.
There may be rules imposed, which sometimes against my will, but I still follow because she gives us through expiation’s and elaborations why they are to be followed. There are employee development trainings and seminars for our development and competency. 3. Discuss how effective management could be achieved. In achieving an effective management base on my thoughts, It must begin with a qualified manager with the knowledge, skill and a good attitude towards planning, organizing, directing and controlling the whole unit and the staff. It must start with a good head and the rest of the body will follow.
I can support my statement by my experiences. During my hospital exposure in SSL, we have trainees older than our head nurse. I learned a valuable lesson: people don’t like having much younger ass/senior. I admire how our head nurse handle the situation, instead of viewing them (older trainees) merely as difficult people, she made it her responsibility to to them that she is superior to them/us. She established her credibility without being stubborn. She gets her hands dirty and is not afraid of rolling up their sleeves, too humble. She is authoritative but it is her right to be one.
She is consistent in her approach and style that why our ward then was very peaceful and organized. But I believe there is no perfect manager in the eye of the workers, despite of your refection you will always have haters but as an Effective manager, you must be good at engaging with difficult personalities and situations. 4. Discuss fully the 5 major functions of nursing service Earlier in my nursing career, I thought nursing service department only caters patient care and personnel/staffing but as I get along, it gets expanded, extended and complicated. Then I have to learn and to get familiarized with its functions.
Care of Patient: The nursing service must have adequate numbers of licensed registered nurses, licensed practical (vocational) nurses, and other personnel to provide nursing care to al patients as needed. There must be supervisory and staff personnel for each department or nursing unit to ensure, when needed, the immediate availability of a registered nurse for bedside care of any patient. (1) The hospital must provide 24- hour nursing services furnished or supervised by a registered nurse, and have a licensed practical nurse or registered nurse on duty at all times. 2) The nursing service must have a procedure to ensure that hospital nursing personnel for whom licenser is required have valid and current licenser. (3) A registered nurse must supervise and evaluate the nursing care for each patient. 4) The hospital must ensure that the nursing staff develops, and keeps current, a nursing care plan for each patient. (5) A registered nurse must assign the nursing care of each patient to other nursing personnel in accordance with the patient’s needs and the specialized qualifications and competence of the nursing staff available. 6) Non-employee licensed nurses who are working in the hospital must adhere to the policies and procedures of the hospital. The director of nursing service must provide for the adequate supervision and evaluation of the clinical activities of non-employee urging personnel which occur within the responsibility of the nursing service. Personnel Management: It is a significant part of management concerned with employees at work and with their relationship within the organization.
Personnel management includes the function of employment, development and compensation- These functions are performed primarily by the personnel management in consultation with other departments. Personnel management is an extension to general management. It is concerned with promoting and stimulating competent work force to make their fullest contribution to the concern. Personnel management exist to advise and assist the line managers in personnel matters. Therefore, personnel department is a staff department of an organization.
Personnel management lays emphasize on action rather than making lengthy schedules, plans, work methods. The problems and grievances of people at work can be solved more effectively through rationale personnel policies. It is based on human orientation. It tries to help the workers to it’s effective incentive plans so that the employees provide fullest co-operation. Physical environment: While the hospital setting is one of healing and comfort, it also includes certain angers. Hospitals contain hazardous chemicals, chemotherapeutic drugs, radioactive material and infectious matter, among other threatening items.
For this reason, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration enforces laws and regulations to ensure protection against these exposures. In addition there are also dangers from fire and smoke that can be particularly perilous for vulnerable hospital patients. Life Safety Codes have been promulgated to address these problems and are enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency, and reviewed every three years by The Joint Commission. Some states and municipalities also have laws and isolations concerning hazardous material and fire safety.
Relationship: The core mission of hospitals and health care systems is caring for people. This service aims to To fulfill that mission, hospitals and health systems need compassionate, skilled, trained, and dedicated men and women who do the work that supports the mission. Hospitals view employees and employee relations as a top priority and the importance of employee relations issues grows daily. Administrative Practice: They are responsible for the day-to-day operation of a hospital, clinic, managed care organization or public health agency.
To coordinate the actions of all departments and ensure they function as one, hospital administrators must hold a wide set of skills and knowledge. 5. Discuss the personal factors that affect nursing administration. As defined by Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, nursing administration it simply refer to the process that managers follow to accomplish organizational goals. Thus to have an effective nursing administration, the nursing administrator and staff must possess there must be Knowledge, Skill, Attitude, Values, Motivation and Human Relation.
Knowledge: Nursing administrator you must hold a RAN with either a Bachelor’s of Science in Nursing (BBS), a Master’s of Science in Nursing (MS), or a doctorate in Nursing. Degrees or coursework in human resources, management, and education are also highly desired in a Nursing Services Administrator, though not all positions will require them. Your degrees must be from an accredited institution. Skill: is important quality in the nursing administration. The staff on a unit looks to the nurse manager for clinical expertise and advice when they have a problem.
The nurse manager should be able to demonstrate how to change a dressing or start an intravenous line, or be able to make recommendations for managing a particular taxation. The nurse manager must be committed to on-going education through reading, formal education and regular clinical practice to ensure she retains her clinical expertise. Attitude: Nursing is one of the toughest and most stressful Jobs around. Tension can become so overwhelming that laughing is the only alternative to crying.
An affective manager understands this; we are all human, and sometimes appropriate humor can be the healthiest and most compassionate way to help staff same holds true for managers. A nurse manager needs to be professional in her appearance, language, and behavior, Just as a staff nurse must be. Coming to work disheveled or inappropriately dressed, using improper language, or failing to follow standards for attendance or behavior are a few examples of the do-what-I-say-and- not-what-I-do double standard. What goes for the nurse must go for the manager.
Motivation: The nurse manager needs to find ways to motivate and involve staff. If a nurse manager displays a hopeless, cynical, or dispassionate attitude, so will the staff nurses. The effective nurse manager is involved with the nursing staff on all levels, welcomes their input, and works with them to ensure excellence, create autonomy, ND increase Job satisfaction and opportunities for advancement. Human Relation: In order to achieve a good human relation, there must be a good communication. Communication is a key skill for a nurse manager.
The staff on a nursing unit may include nurse aides with minimal education as well as nursing professionals educated at the baccalaureate level or above. Nurse managers also interact with doctors, social workers, patients, families, other hospital workers such as respiratory therapists or lab technicians and senior hospital administration staff. Some of the people who work in or seek care from a hospital may have limited English skills. In each case, the nurse manager must be able to establish rapport, ensure communication is clear and listen carefully for potential problems or miscommunication. II.
Submit 1 reading Urinals) related to this module. Include your comments/ reaction and source. Nursing Leadership and the New Nurse Susan O. Valentine University of North Carolina, Charlotte Abstract While a fall in the number of nursing leaders may be attributed to the current nursing shortage, studies have noted that there is also a significant deficiency in the number of nursing leaders. In 2002, nurses are in a distinct position to influence healthcare policy and legislation. We need nursing leadership to exert that influence and by nurturing both leadership as well as clinical skills, we can.
The nursing profession trains new nurses on operating the latest technology and complex medical equipment. In contrast, once at the bedside they rarely get the opportunity to apply even basic leadership principles. Nursing as a profession does a disservice to new nurses by not developing their leadership capabilities. This paper presents three leadership styles: quantum leadership, transformational leadership and the dynamic leader-follower relationship model and explains why each style can be integrated into the practice of entry-level nurses.
Introduction The current nursing shortage is a serious problem at all levels of nursing. Even at scarcity of nursing staff (Consubstantiation, 2002). Unfortunately an overlooked aspect of this nursing shortage is the dearth of leaders among nurses. Now more than ever nursing needs vibrant and dedicated leaders. We are at a distinct advantage to influence healthcare legislation and policy and yet our supply of leaders to pave the way has diminished. The reason is two-fold: smaller numbers are entering the profession, and we are not developing leadership characteristics as we evolve clinical nursing practice.
B. M. Opera (2000) notes two distinct factors influencing the nursing shortage?baby boomer retirement and fewer candidates entering the nursing field. For some, that is not surprising. However, it is not Just the sheer number of nurses at the bedside affecting our leadership problems. Horton- Deutsche and Mohr (2001) wrote an opinion article based on BBS student clinical observations and evaluations. They found an “absence of nursing leadership” (p. 121) that directly contributed to student’s unfavorable opinions on their profession. They assert that nursing leadership now faces a challenge.
The answer is to “develop one’s own leadership skills as well as those of one’s staff’ (p. 60). At nearly every level of nursing we train nurses on the Job to operate complex medical equipment and adhere to administrative procedures. Our own governing bodies dictate that we stay current with continuing education courses. We can also extend this attitude toward learning by training nurses at every level to be highly competent leaders. Leadership does not rest merely with administrators and high-level managers, but also can be plopped and implemented at the bedside.
Nursing has a responsibility to encourage and support new members of the profession, as they become competent clinicians. Nursing must also make them competent leaders. Nursing Leadership Theories: Quantum, Transformational, and Dynamic Leader-Follower Relationship Model While there are several theories of nursing leadership, it’s important to review those most applicable to the new nurse. The three theories that can be best practiced as a new nurse are quantum leadership, transformational leadership and the dynamic leader- follower relationship model.
These three theories are appealing specifically for their embrace of leadership at all levels. Five years ago Porter-Grady (1997) observed, “Leaders issue from a number of places in the system and play as divergent a role as their places in the system require” (p. 18). Porter-Grady (1997, 1999) opened up a new process of thinking about leadership by noting how the changing healthcare system required new leadership characteristics and roles. He observed that knowledge of technology has changed the traditional hierarchy of leadership. Traditionally, worker knowledge rose vertically as the worker moved up the chain of nomad.
Typically, knowledge bases increase as position increases. Now leadership and the knowledge associated with it has shifted. As new nurses enter the profession with ever expanding skills, “Technology has made possible this growth in the horizontal connections… “