AP Psy Chapter 10 Part 1

Which psychological specialty is most directly concerned with the systematic study of problem solving, decision making, concept formation, and forming judgments?
cognitive psychology
Professor Carr’s research efforts focus on how the use of heuristics influences people’s assessments of financial risks. Which specialty area does his research best represent?
cognitive psychology
When we use the word automobile to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n):
concept.
Pigeons can reliably discriminate pictures of cars from pictures of chairs. This best illustrates their capacity to develop:
concepts
A prototype is a:
best example of a particular category.
In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of:
prototypes
Prototype is to category as ________ is to ________.
rose; “flower”
With which of the following statements will people typically agree most quickly?
A robin is a bird.
Susan had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely resemble
prototype
People are likely to take less time to recognize a woman as a nurse than a man as a nurse because a woman more closely resembles their ________ of a nurse.
prototype
Ernest didn’t know whether the boy’s locker room was located down the hallway to his right or the one to his left. Crossing his fingers, he decided to try the left hallway. Ernest’s strategy for finding the locker room best illustrates the use of:
trial and error.
An algorithm is a:
methodical step by step procedure for solving problems.
A chess-playing computer program that routinely calculates all possible outcomes of all possible game moves best illustrates problem solving by means of:
an algorithm.
Rule of thumb strategies that allow us to solve problems and make judgments efficiently are called:
heuristics
The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to:
save time in arriving at solutions to problems.
As he attempted to spell the word receive, Elmer reminded himself “i before e except after c.” Elmer’s self reminder best illustrates the use of:
a heuristic.
After spending 2 hours trying to solve an engineering problem, Amira finally gave up. As she was trying to fall asleep that night, a solution to the problem popped into her head. Amira’s
insight
The confirmation bias refers to the tendency to:
search for information consistent with our preconceptions.
Because she believes that boys are naughtier than girls, Mrs. Hill, a second grade teacher, watches boys more closely than girls for any signs of misbehavior. Mrs. Hill’s surveillance
confirmation bias.
When Peter Wason asked people to guess the rule he had used to devise a sequence of three numbers, they typically guessed incorrectly. Their errors best illustrated the effect of:
confirmation bias.
Scientists are trained to carefully observe and record any research outcomes that are inconsistent with their hypotheses. This practice most directly serves to inhibit:
confirmation bias.
The inability to take a new perspective on a problem is called a:
fixation
Some people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the hazards of:
fixation
A mental set is most likely to inhibit:
creativity
Throughout his elementary and high school years, Charlie got away with copying his test answers from classmates. Because the college’s test proctors are very observant, Charlie spends as many hours devising new ways to cheat as it would take him to study and perform well in an honest fashion. Charlie’s strategy for passing tests illustrates the consequences of:
a mental set.
The tendency to think of objects only in terms of their normal uses is called:
functional fixedness.
Joan forgot to bring a pillow on the camping trip, so she spent a very uncomfortable and restless night. Unfortunately, she never thought of using her down filled jacket as a pillow. Joan’s
functional fixedness.
The representativeness heuristic refers to our tendency to:
judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.
The danger of using the representativeness heuristic is that it may lead us to:
disregard probability information that is relevant to our judgments.
Miss Jan De Jong is orderly, neat, fairly quiet, and shy. She enjoys reading in her spare time and belongs to a social club that includes three librarians, nine real estate agents, and eight social workers. A tendency to conclude that Jan must be one of the three librarians would illustrate the
the representativeness heuristic.
Mistakenly concluding that the forgetful acts of an elderly person must be indicative of Alzheimer’s disease best illustrates the impact of:
the representativeness heuristic.
Isabel suffered symptoms so similar to those associated with pregnancy induced morning sickness that she erroneously concluded that she was pregnant. Isabel’s conclusion best illustrates the influence of:
the representativeness heuristic.
Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the:
availability heuristic.
Paul overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it’s easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done. This best illustrates the impact of:
the availability heuristic.
By encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by a fire, insurance salespeople are especially successful at selling large homeowners’ policies. They are most clearly exploiting the influence of:
the availability heuristic.
A single, memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the:
availability heuristic.
A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White’s perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by:
the availability heuristic.
The tendency to incorrectly estimate that more people die from accidents and homicides than from strokes and diabetes best illustrates the influence of:
the availability heuristic.
The overconfidence phenomenon refers to the tendency to:
underestimate the extent to which our beliefs and judgments are erroneous
Stockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market average. This belief best illustrates:
overconfidence.
When Judy started college, she was certain that she had the willpower to never smoke marijuana. By the end of her freshman year, however, Judy had used this drug on three different occasions. Judy’s experience best illustrates:
overconfidence
Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit:
overconfidence
Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as “75 percent lean” than to ground beef described as “25 percent fat.” This illustrates that consumer reactions are influenced by:
framing
On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at home. Sheryl’s behavior illustrates:
the framing effect.
People asked to forfeit an early payment discount are less upset than when they are asked to bear a late payment surcharge. This best illustrates the importance of:
framing
The tendency for one’s preexisting opinions to distort logical reasoning is known as:
belief bias.
Wu believes that some murderers truly love their own children; he also believes that all who truly love their own children are effective parents. Wu’s negative attitude toward murderers is so strong, however, that he finds it very difficult to accept the logical conclusion that some murderers are effective parents. His difficulty best illustrates:
belief bias.
People with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever. This best illustrates:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.
Research findings suggest that the best advice to give people who want to avoid belief perseverance is:
“Consider the opposite.”
Orhan first became suspicious of his roommate’s honesty while trying to account for his own missing billfold. Although Orhan later recalled that he had left his billfold in the glove compartment of his own car, his newly formed doubt about his roommate’s honesty remained as strong as ever. Orhan’s irrational suspicion of his roommate best illustrates:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.
The value of generating positive first impressions in your initial interactions with a new employer is best underscored by the research on:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.
Even when Lepper, Ross, and Lau explained to high school students that prior viewing of a confusing film caused their poor performance on a problem-solving test, the students continued to see themselves as incompetent. This illustrates:
the belief perseverance phenomenon.
Psychologists are interested in artificial intelligence because:
computers can simulate some human problem solving strategies.
Which of the following illustrates an application of artificial intelligence?
a computer programmed to play chess
In order to more closely mimic human thought processes than they now do, computers of the future must have the capacity for:
the parallel processing of information.
Unlike conventional computer systems, neural networks have a capacity for:
processing numerous informational units simultaneously.
The smallest distinctive sound unit of language is a:
phoneme
The various vowel sounds that can be placed between a “t” and an “n” produce words such as tan, ten, tin, and ton. These various vowel sounds represent different:
phonemes
English words are constructed from about ________ different phonemes.
forty
Morphemes are:
the smallest speech units that carry meaning.
The word “cats” contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).
4; 2
Semantics refers to the:
derivation of meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
The rock musician was HIT with a rotten egg while performing his latest HIT song. The fact that you can recognize two different meanings for the word “hit” in the preceding sentence demonstrates the importance of:
semantics
In order to combine words into grammatically sensible sentences, one needs to adhere to proper rules of:
syntax
Lavonne was careful to avoid the use of dangling participles and run on sentences in her essay because she did not want to lose points for faulty:
syntax
Consonant phonemes generally convey ________ information than do vowel phonemes, and frequently used words are generally ________ than infrequently used words.
more; shorter
The earliest stage of speech development is called the ________ stage.
babbling
Infants are first able to discriminate speech sounds during the ________ stage.
babbling
At some point during the babbling stage, infants begin to:
lose their ability to discriminate sounds that they never hear.
Children first begin to use sounds to communicate meaning during the ________ stage.
one-word
At the age of 15 months, Carla repeatedly cries “hoy” when she wants her mother to hold her. Carla is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.
one word
Telegraphic speech is most closely associated with the ________ stage of language
two-word
Which of the following would be most characteristic of a 2 year old’s telegraphic speech?
“eat apple”
With respect to the debate over the process of language development, nature is to nurture as ________ is to ________.
Chomsky; Skinner
Noam Chomsky has emphasized that the acquisition of language by children is facilitated by:
an unborn readiness to learn grammatical rules.
It is difficult to explain language acquisition solely in terms of imitation and reinforcement because children:
overgeneralize grammatical rules, producing speech errors they have never heard before.
When 3 year old Lea complained, “Boris hitted me with a ball,” she was illustrating the tendency of young children to:
use certain grammatical rules in sentence construction.
Infants can learn the difference between syllable sequences that follow an ABA pattern (such as: ga-ti-ga) and those that follow an ABB pattern (such as: wo-fe-fe). This best illustrates the infant’s capacity to learn:
statistical probabilities in speech.
The best evidence that there is a critical period for language acquisition is the fact that:
people most easily master the grammar of a second language during childhood.
Compared to deaf adults exposed to sign language from birth, those who first learn sign language as teens are less likely to:
comprehend grammatical subtleties of sign language.
Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis emphasizes that:
language determines the way we think.
Many bilinguals experience a different sense of self, depending on which language they are using. This most clearly illustrates the implications of:
Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis.
It has been suggested that Eskimos’ rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed. This suggestion most clearly illustrates:
the linguistic relativity hypothesis.
Even though 18 month old Jerry has not yet learned the words for different colors, he recognizes color differences just as accurately as his 4 year old brother, who can name the different colors. This fact would most directly challenge:
Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis.
Research with children indicates that the use of the generic pronoun “he” tends to trigger images of:
a male
The fact that we can think without language is best illustrated in research on:
mental imagery.
Our capacity for thinking without language is best illustrated by:
parallel processing.
The problem-solving abilities of forest-dwelling chimpanzees are best illustrated by their naturally developed use of:
hand tools.
The dance of the honeybee illustrates that animals are capable of:
communicating useful information.
Beatrice and Allen Gardner taught the chimpanzee Washoe to communicate by means of:
sign language.
Research on the language capabilities of apes clearly demonstrates that they have the capacity to:
communicate meaning through the use of symbols.
Those who are skeptical with regard to claims that apes share our capacity for language are especially likely to highlight chimps’ limited use of appropriate:
syntax.