Genetic Engineering is the method amending the hereditary heartsickness of an organism in a predetermined way by altering its genetic material. Often used for certain microorganisms such as bacteria or viruses, increase the synthesis of compounds, forming new compounds, or adapt to different media. Other applications of this technique, also known as recombinant DNA technology, including gene therapy, providing a functioning gene to a person suffering from a genetic disorder or suffering from diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or cancer.
Human gene therapy (TAG) Is the deliberate administration f genetic material to a human patient In an attempt to correct a specific genetic defect, that Is, the Insertion of genetic material Into cells of an organism by replacing mutant alleles for genes with the desired fusion, to treat or prevent the development of a disease. This therapy have basic requirements for (TAG). The gene must be isolated and available for transfer. There must be an effective method for cloning. The target tissue must be accessible for gene transfer. Other available effective therapy should not exist.
Therapy should not harm the patient. The types of gene hereby are: Somatic gene therapy: is performed on the somatic cells of an individual, so that modifications involving therapy only occur in that patient. Live in therapy: cellular transformation takes place within the patient to which the therapy is administered. Involves administering to the patient a gene through a vehicle (such as a virus), which should localize to infected cells. The problem with this technique Is that It Is very difficult to get a table to locate a single type of target cells.
Therapy ex vivo cell transformation Is carried out from a tissue biopsy of the patient and Is then reinstalled already transformed cells. As outside the patient’s body, this type of This technique is almost completely reduced to as homeopathic cells are cultivable cells, constituting a transplantable material. Germ line gene therapy: be held on the germ cells of the patient, so that the changes generated by the therapeutic genes would be inherited. For ethical and legal issues, this type of gene therapy is not carried out today. (Monopolies, 2014) By other hand the knowledge of the genes is not limited to medicine.
The possibility of plants and animals transgenic for commercial purposes is too tempting not to try. Biotechnology include the use of bacteria, yeasts and animal cells in culture for the manufacture of specific substances. Allow, thanks to the integrated knowledge and application techniques biochemistry, the microbiology and engineering chemistry advantage in technological terms the properties of microorganisms and cell cultures. Allow produced from resources available in abundance and renewable large number of substances and compounds.
For example Genetic engineering is also now a key to improving crop tool vegetables. By example, you can transfer a gene from a bacterium to a plant, such is the example f Bet corn, in this case, soil bacilli produced a protein that kills the larvae of an insect that normally destroy corn crops.. For obtaining a better planting or animal, can be injected genes that provide such improvement, or change your genetic information that determines a character. An example of this is the transgenic potatoes to which genes are injected to increase their nutritional value.
Pharmaceutical Industry: Obtaining proteins mammals. A number of hormones such as insulin, growth hormone, clotting factors, etc… Have an interest very large medical and commercial. Before the production of these proteins was performed by direct extraction from tissues or body fluids. Today, thanks to the technology of recombinant DNA, genes of some human proteins in microorganisms suitable for commercial manufacture cloned. A typical example is the production of insulin is obtained from the yeast Chromosomes Characters, in which clone the human insulin gene.
Preparation of recombinant vaccines. The system of production of traditional vaccines from pathogenic microorganisms inactive, may involve a potential risk. Many vaccines such as the hepatitis B, are now obtained by 16. Because most of the antigenic factors are proteins that is done is to clone the gene of the responding protein. (Genetics, 2014) Agriculture: Through genetic engineering could have changed the characteristics of large number of plants to make them more useful to man , are called transgenic plants.
The first plants were obtained by these techniques types of tomatoes, which are slow to mature fruit a few weeks after being harvested. Recalling that the plant cell has a rigid cell wall, the first thing to do is to obtain protoplasm. We will look at the techniques of genetic modification in cell cultures. These cells can undergo treatments which alter their heritage genetic. The techniques are classified into direct and indirect. Among indirect techniques include the transformation of cells mediated by Crematorium domestication.
This bacterium can be considered as the first genetic engineer, for its particular mechanism of action : it is able to genetically modify the host plant, so as to allow its reproduction. This bacterium is a provocative true of cancer in the plant in which you stay. Direct techniques include electrification, microeconomic, lollipops and other chemical methods. The main characters have been transferred to plants or have microbial diseases. Already available seed cotton , which are insensitive to herbicides.