APUSH Chapter 32

Globalization
Increased imports and exports link the U.S. economy with the world. Brought more products at lower prices but took industrial jobs overseas.
President Bill Clinton
Became president in 1992, reelected in 1996. Passed NAFTA. Was impeached by the House but acquitted by the Senate. Popular throughout his presidency despite scandal.
Contract with America
A document released during the 1994 election by the Republican party written by Harry Hunter who aided Newt Gingrich among other people. It detailed what Republicans would do if they won the majority in the House of Representatives.
Election of 2000
W. Bush v. Al Gore. Gore won the popular vote. Bush won Florida and the election.Republicans controlled the House of Representatives and the Senate was evenly divided by the parties.
Bush v. Gore
It was unclear who won Florida, a recount showed Bush winning by 300. punch card ballots could be wonky so Gore demanded a hand recount, but it wasn’t counted in time so Bush was declared the winner but Gore contested the result and Bush contested those results and it ended with the Supreme Court giving an impossible deadline and deciding the election with Bush as the winner.
Richard Cheney
The Vice President for George Bush.
John Kerry
Senator from Massachusetts that lost to Bush in 2004 with 252 electoral votes and 48% of the popular vote.
Enron Scandal
Enron lied about its profits, and were involved with shady dealings. Went bankrupt as the scandal was uncovered. Had close dealings with the White House.
Personal Computer
The first was launched by Apple, called Apple II. IBM later interned the market and dominated. The result was thousands of jobs, some in the manufacturing of computers and hardware.
Digital Divide
Computer and Internet skills and access became increasingly unnecessary for most employment, making things difficult for those who can’t afford them and can’t develop skills with them.
Latino Immigration
Due to the Immigration Reform Act of 1965 and its elimination of the national origins criteria Latino immigration increased significantly. The highest number of immigrants came from Latin America.
Middle, Poor, Working-class
Rising income inequality, the rich got richer. Poverty rates grew as the gap increased and industrial work moved oversea.
African Americans
An increase of the black middle class economic status and education, resulted in increased despair in the Underclass as they were left in the crummy neighborhoods as the richer blacks moved out.Unemployment and poor school performance was high. Race relations soured due to the Rodney King and OJ Simpson trials.
Right-to-Life Movement
Anti-abortionists. Its most active supporters where Catholics,the Church, and other religions. They believe life begins at conception. They managed to get government slowly pulled from abortion. Some extremists bombed clinics and killed doctors.
Environmentalism
Their numbers increased and they used new legislation protecting endangered species and environmentally fragile regions to win gains. Rallied around Global Warming in the late 1980’s
New World Order
Also know as Globalization. It had many critics on the basis of economic, ethical, and environmental
International Monetary Fund(IMF)
Controlled international credit and exchange rates.
Oklahoma City Bombing
A van full of explosives blew up a federal building in Oklahoma City killing 168, a former Marine how had joined a militant anti-government moment was convicted of the crime.
Al Qaeda
Middle Eastern terrorist network lead by Osama Bin Laden. Responsible for 9/11. US fought with them when they invaded Afghanistan.
Axis Evil
Iraq, Iran and North Korea-anti-American regimes that had or were trying to get nuclear weapons. Named by W. Bush.
Abu Ghraib Prison Scandal
Human rights violations by American military police personal against prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison.
Partisanship
Many decisions were decided along party lines, such as Clinton’s impeachment and the Supreme Court decision of Bush’s election.
North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA)
Eliminated most trade barriers between North American countries.
Newt Gingrich
Republican speaker of the house during Clinton’s presidency, author and political consultant.
Clinton’s Impeachment
Result of the Monica Lewinsky scandal. December 19, 1998 in the House two count of impeachment were approved, lying to the grand jury and obstructing justice, voting along partisan lines. Moved to the Senate and a trial of the president began, it ended with a decisive acquittal of Clinton.
Al Gore
Ran against Bush in 2000, barely lost. Clinton’s Vice President. Later won a Nobel Peace Prize for drawing attention to Global Warming.
President George W. Bush
Won a controversial election in 2000, and was reelected in 2004. Cut taxes and had religious views in his policies(gay rights and abortion). Got US into the War on Terrorism and into the Iraq War leading to low popularity rates.
Election of 2004
Bush v. Kerry. Bush won 51% of the popular vote and 286 electoral votes. Had Kerry won Ohio(close), he would have won.
Technology Industires
Digital technologies, cell phones, computers, the Internet, ect., created new jobs and consumer needs. Helped with rapid economic growth in the late 20th century.
Federal Reserve Board
Created in 1913, the Federal Reserve Board supervises and regulates the Federal Reserve banks and notes. Chairman Greenspan warned of American carelessness in the stock market shortly before a recession caused the bursting of the tech bubble.
Internet
Began as the government funded Arpanet in 1963. Increased rapidly after being released from the government, and upon the advent of the personal computer. The World Wide Web made publishing and accessing data from the Internet more organized.
Genetic Engineering
Began with the Human Genome Project. Some people feared it due religious morals and fear of designer babies. It was also disliked due to its connection to stem cell research, despite its promises of cure some unpleasant diseases.
Asian Immigration
Due to the Immigration Reform Act of 1965 and its elimination of the national origins criteria Asian immigration increased significantly.
AIDS epidemic
Product of the HIV virus, an STD, which makes patients more susceptible to other diseases. The first affected group was gay men, then it spread to druggies, the idea of safe sex was widely promoted. People around the world struggle with the virus, especially Africa. An expensive drug cocktail was found to treat it.
Pro-choice movement
Defenders of abortion. Seemed to have won with Clinton’s election, except Bush succeeded him and openly opposed abortion.
Target Marketing
Advertisers and products began to target specific groups of people and appeal to them to sell their wares.
World Trade Organization(WTO)
Monitors the enforcement of GATT, General Agreements on Trades and Tariffs, treaties.
Islamic Fundamentalism
Increased globalization lead to some grievances about economics, religion, and culture that came with the western world. Many Islamic nations overthrew their pro-western governments for fundamentalist ones. Militant groups used terrorism.
War on Terrorism
After 9/11 Bush announced a War on Terrorism which lead to the invasion of Afghanistan and the overthrowing of the Taliban who were accused of allying with Al Qaeda. Resulted in new foreign policy.
Guantanamo Prisoners
Those expected of terrorism where sent to Guantanamo where they were held from long periods of times without lawyers, without formal charges, tortured and interrogated.
Election of 1996
Clinton v. Dole. Clinton wins with 49% of the popular vote and 379 electoral votes. Democrats failed to win a house.
Monica Lewinsky Scandal
Investigation into Paula Jones’ sexual harassment case lead to charges of Clinton lying at his deposition about having sexual relations with Monica Lewinsky. Lewinsky agreed to testify and Clinton admitted it. This lead to his impeachment