Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach Chapter 1 Introduction

Intelligence
How a mere handful of matter can understand, predict, and manipulate a world much larger than itself.
Artificial Intelligence
An attempt to understand and build intelligent entities.
Rationality
An ideal performance measure. A system is rational if it makes the right decision given what it knows.
Thinking Humanly
The exciting new effort to make computers think…machines with minds, in the full and literal sense.
Acting Humanly
The study of how to make computers doe things which at the present moment humans are better.
Thinking rationally
The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason and act.
Acting rationally
Computational intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent agents.
Turing Test
Proposed by Alan Turing, a computer passes the test if a human interrogator, after posing some written questions, cannot tell whether the written responses come from a person or from a computer.
Natural Language processing
The ability to communicate successfully in English
Knowledge representation
The ability to store what it knows or hears
Automated reasoning
The ability to use stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions
Total Turing test
A Turing test designed to test an AI’s physical, vision and motion, capabilities.
Cognitive Science
Brings together computer models form AI and experimental techniques from psychology to construct precise and testable theories of the human mind.
Syllogisms
Patterns for argument structures that always yielded correct conclusions when given correct premises.
Logic
The laws that govern the operation of the mind.
Agent
Something that acts
Rational Agent
An agent that acts to achieve the best outcome or, when there is uncertainty, the best expected outcome
Limited rationality
Acting appropriately when there is not enough time to do all the computations one might like.
Tractability
A problem is in tractable if the time required to solve instances of the problem grows exponentially with the size of the instance.
NP-Completeness
A problem that is NP-Complete has not fast method for finding a solution. That is, the time required to solve the problem using any currently known algorithm increases very quickly as the size of the problem grows.
Probability
Dealing with uncertain measurements and incomplete theories.
Game
The actions of one player can affect the utility of another positively or negatively.
Satisficing
Making decisions that are good enough rather than laboriously calculating an optimal decision.
Cognitive Psychology
The brain is an information-processing device.
Key steps to a knowledge based agent
1. The stimulus must be translated into an internal representation
2. The representation is manipulated by cognitive processes to derive new internal representations
3. These are in turn re-translated back in action
Homeostatic Devices
Devices containing appropriate feedback loops to achieve stable adaptive behavior.
Physical Symbol System
A physical symbol system has the necessary and sufficient means for general intelligent action. Any system exhibiting intelligence must operate by manipulating data structures composed of symbols.
Microworld
A limited problem that requires intelligence to solve.
Genetic Algorithm
Making an appropriate series of small mutations to a machine code program, one can generate a program with good performance for any particular problem.
Weak Methods
General-purpose search mechanisms trying to string together elementary reasoning steps to find complete solutions. They did not scale up to large or difficult problem instances.
Different Approaches to AI
Model humans or state from an ideal state: humanly vs. rationally.