Artificial Intelligence (AI)

AI Methodologies
various approaches to AI research. Fall under one of two categories: conventional AI or computational intelligence
Conventional AI (or symbolic AI, logical AI, or neat AI)
uses programming that emphasizes statistical analysis to calculate the probability of various outcomes in order to find the best solution
Heuristics
strategies or “rules of thumb” used as shortcuts to solve complex tasks. Unlike algorithms, heuristics do not guarantee a correct solution
ES
Expert System: a form of conventional AI that is programmed to function like a human expert in a particular field or area
Computational Intelligence
Systems that “think” in the same way that humans think. Systems that learn, develop and reach optimal solutions based on previous experience
Neural Network
uses software to simulate the functioning of the neurons in a human brain
Similar to a child, a _____ ____ discovers its own rules
example: how to tell if a face in a photograph is male or female
neural net.
Turing Test
A method of determining if a machine exhibits human intelligence. Alan Turing believed that thinking machines were just around the corner. Researchers today, over 60 years later, are thinking the same thing.
Considered the foundation (start) of AI
Turing Test
technological Singularity
the point in time at which computers exceed humans in intelligence, launching a new era of innovation.
Who is associated with this?
Ray Kurzweil. Many are doubtful about his credibility
The world’s most advanced humanoid robot.
Honda’s ASIMO
Computer Vision
combines hardware (cameras and scanners) and AI software that permit computers to capture, store, and interpret visual images and pictures
Natural Language Processing
uses AI techniques to enable computers to generate and understand natural human languages, such as English. Users interact with a computer system via speech
Types of Pattern Recognition
Speech Recognition
Handwriting Recognition
Facial Recognition
____ _____ might use pattern recognition
Data mining
digital assistant, or bot, consists of programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program.
Intelligent Agent; often include a human persona and animated avatar form.
Intelligent Agents
Search databases for the best price/deal
Interact to answer questions or perform tasks—coordinate meetings/schedules
Artificial Creativity
a branch of AI that works to program computers to express themselves through art, music, poetry, and other outlets.