Artificial Intelligence - Essay Example

The Idea of creating an Intelligence being was proposed and discussed in various ways by writers and philosophers centuries before the computer was invented. The Roman poet Ovid wrote a story of a beautiful woman brought to life, later forming the fable “MY FAIR LADY. In the industrial ages, Mary Shelley and DRP. Frankincense manufactured a man from separate components and brought him to life through electricity. By the uses, fiction was beginning to mirror the goals of the most ambitious AAA researchers.

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The films Like Blade Runner Terminator, AAA and many others showing gadgets and robots present a vision of cowboy machines almost indistinguishable from humans. It was easy to develop animal-like intelligence but to embed human intelligence became difficult for the scientists. Future & Scope of AAA The researches in AAA have resulted in various Industrial and Commercial sys. The following successes are a verdict to the immense contributions In the past & present and also promise a bright future for humans and AAA environments In the future: a. Economic Monitoring system b.

Satellite Tracking system c. Space Navigation system d. Aircraft Monitoring system e. Mil Expert systems f. Vehicle Navigation sys g. Speech Synthesis & Recognition sys h. Immortal Robot sys I. Non-volatile Memory sys The future environments of AAA are meant to make a man’s life easier. They promise to sake the world a better place for humans in future AAA SYS WORKING The Perception It involves a step by step process: a. Capturing the Image In a Numeric Array . The Depth Perception d. Description of Texture Decoding the Color e. . Looking for a Match of the Model Similarity Functions g. . Touch Perception Representing Perceived Knowledge Logical Representation It uses expressions in formal language to represent the knowledge required. Facts are expressed as simple propositions; true / false, on / off and more precisely 1/0. For a statement like “It is raining and I am hungry’, both the conditions can be true or false or combination of both. This is expressed using the AND / OR operator for situation P & situation Q. Procedural Representation These are declared instructions for problem solving. It contains a set of rules that alter the facts in the database.

These rules are generally in the following form: IF THEN Network Representation They capture knowledge as a graph in which nodes represent relationships and associations. Classes can also have sub-classes that inherit properties in a similar way. Structural representation Information is organized in complex knowledge structures. Slots in structures represent attributes where values can be placed. Structured information can capture complex sit or objects, for example eating a meal in a restaurant or the contents of a room in the hotel.

Such structures can be linked together as networks. Frames and Scripts are the most common types of structured representation. Searching for Perceived Knowledge 1 1 . Three types of search for acquiring the perceived knowledge are possible: Random Search It explores any memory path at random. It often fails to give results and skips info present in memory. It may also retrace a path it has tried before. Also called the “drunkard’s walk”, this search might reach its goal quickly by chance, but it is the east efficient way to go about the Job.

Exhaustive Search It systematically explores the trees in the memory without repeating or missing any of them. It is stereotypical and time-consuming in nature. It will backtrack if a path is exhausted until the goal is achieved. Heuristic Search It applies a heuristic (an evaluation rule that estimates the potential of each option to lead towards the goal) at every decision point. It explores and simultaneously evaluates the potentials of every option to lead towards a goal and searches on that path.

It pursues the most promising option, backtracking if necessary. It is the fastest. AAA CHARACTERISTICS Machine Learning information and knowledge using feedback control system. Natural Language Understanding AAA is meant for human usage and so for understanding their natural language in different styles. Decision Making The decisions in AAA are based on previous experience, information and knowledge gained. Fuzzy Reasoning & Logic Implementation It is a superset of conventional (Boolean) logic that has been extended to handle uncertainty in data.

Semantic Networks-Memory Org The AAA machine org the acquired info into nets of knowledge linked in memory called the semantic nets of information. Artificial Neural Networks-Including Perception The machine necessary has Neuron-like Network to receive info of touch, movement, changing temperature and atmospheric, threats from environment. They are distributed over the entire machine in a regular fashion in the shape of intelligent sensory preceptors. Auto-programmability Function The intelligent AAA machine is capable of programming itself from time to time and from situation to situation.

The user may be a guideline to what all has to be programmed in it but then again it will accept inputs from the user in plain natural language. Expert Systems The specialized task AAA machines form part of commercial or industrial expert sys. Expert Advice & Consultancy Based on huge databases of generations and ages, the AAA machine is able to give valuable advice. VEILS Circuit Design 21 . The simultaneous processing tasks; very complex and huge in nature, and the shortage of space in AAA machines requires that they be manufactured as miniature modules.

The Very Large Scale Integration (VEILS) of circuit’s methodology is nowadays used for fast computers and robots. Simulation Based Expert Sys 22. The Ai sys are also capable of simulating info and environments. A stimulated vision of the Battle field for an anxious Command to plan and then explain the tauter of terrain, deployment of weapons, occupation of defensive position, enemy dispositions, etc. , shall provide crucial information for which the command would otherwise arrange patrol, surveillance or reconnaissance.

The Nuclear Attacks are also simulated for range and effectiveness using simulation expert system. AAA DAILY LIFE APPLICATIONS . Position & Location system IT Based system 2. Auto-programmable Expert system 3. Automated Homes & buildings. 4. Smart Simulation 5. Military Expert system 6. Industrial Application system 7. 8. Satellite Tracking system 9. 10. Space Navigation system 12. 13. 14. Vehicle Navigation system Education Expert system Medical Expert system Results AAA is meant to shift the workload of man to machines.

So, the promotion of AAA is in fact making life better for the humanity. AAA promises a non-erroneous and redundant course of life. AAA is a record of history; of our ancestral experiences and it is not new that man has been learning from history The possession of AAA resources enhances speed& accuracy. It saves time and eliminates wastage of resources. AAA has become the requirement of Intelligence & Information Warfare and the one who will conquer it shall have an edge and shall not remain deprived of the fruits it ill bear in the times to come.