Military Intelligence – is a knowledge acquired through the collection, evaluation, and interpretation of all available information concerning a possible or actual enemy or area of operations, including the weather and terrain. D. Combat Intelligence – is that knowledge of the enemy, weather and terrain required by a commander in planning and conducting tactical operation. It Is developed during the conduct of the operations modification of the original operation plan which may be appreciated. E.
Counterintelligence – Is an aspect of Intelligence which comprises call and military measures, Including the collection, processing and distribution of information, and executive actions, designed to counter enemy or to prevent sabotage or subversive activities. a. Intelligence is continues. All intelligence activities follow a four-stage cycle: planning, collection, evaluation and dissemination. The cycle is continuous and all steps are carried out in an orderly fashion. We cannot afford to have unsystematic and inefficient of information. Any lead must be followed vigorously.
Check the reliability of the source to verify the raw Information. Do anything to make that Information available In useful form. B. Intelligence operations and tactical operations are Interdependent. C. Intelligence must be useful. Intelligence must be useful. Otherwise, what do operating troops need it for? It must focus on a certain intelligence requirement of a commander or his operating troops. The intelligence operation is not terminated, until positive results come out. D. Intelligence must be timely. The best intelligence is worthless if it does not reach the user in time for appropriate action.
There must always be an effective system of disseminating intelligence, as the timeliness of each bit of information must be exploited. E. Intelligence operations must be flexible. Intelligence stateless are always based on logical steps. Standard Intelligence reoccurred make Intelligence operations effective, but must not be followed blindly. Procedures can be changed to meet requirements. Intelligence operations require imagination, foresight and resourcefulness. Creativity plays a great part in the outcome of any intelligence operation. Intelligence, by its very nature, is unorthodox.
To succeed therefore requires an equally queer, unpredictable and out-of-the normal mound of mind. G. Intelligence operations require constant security measures. Anything of intelligence value is highly classified information. Keep it secret and under wraps. 3. INTELLIGENCE AXIOMS: Intelligence axioms are facts that require no doubt because the truths of these statements are obvious. A. AXIOM NRC 1 – Intelligence is crucial to internal security. B. AXIOM NRC 2 – Intelligence is essential to all types of operations 1) Internal Defense Operations 2) Internal Development operations 3) Psychological Operations c.
AXIOM NRC 3 – Intelligence is the responsibility of all government agencies d. AXIOM NRC 4 – Intelligence of the government must be superior to that of the enemy. 4. THE INTELLIGENCE CYCLE In the study of intelligence cycle it is not important which phase is considered first information of intelligence can be inserted in any phases as appropriate. The intelligence cycle has no beginning and no end. Any sequence which is logically organized and passes through a process is workable. The four (4) phases of intelligence cycle are as follows: a. Planning of the collection effort.
The commander must make certain that he has what he needs, when he needs it. He is continually wondering what the enemy is doing, thinking, and planning for the future operations, and about the nature of the terrain not under his control. 1) Planning of the collection effort consist of five (5) steps: ) Determination of intelligence requirements. B) Determination of intelligence priorities. C) Determination of those enemy activities of characteristics of the area of operations which would indicate the answer to the intelligence requirements. ) Selection of collection agencies to the employed and the issuance of the necessary orders and request for information. E) Supervising the execution of order and request. 2) Depending on the mission. The commander and his Staff require intelligence information. A) To arrive at sound and timely decisions in preparing plans and estimate ) To protect the command by avoiding surprise and denying the enemy information concerning his own forces. C) To assist in the processing of other information. Also, in the Commander’s estimate of the situation, three of the five steps involved the active participation of the intelligence effort.
The commander should have readily available information required by the two steps of the Estimate of the situation – the mission and the friendly capabilities. The information required in the last three steps – knowledge of the weather, enemy and terrain – must be provided y the intelligence officer. After the intelligence requirements have been determined and priorities have been established, the intelligence officer must determine what indications will answer questions about the requirements. He must then select the agencies that will actually collect the required information.
There are four criteria for the proper selection of collection agencies: Capability, Suitability, Multiplicity and Balance. To insure a logical, orderly process in his search for the answer to the essential elements of information, the Intelligence officer develops a collection plan. He analyzes the essential elements of information for possible indications of enemy activities, determines the collections agencies he will use, direct, these agencies in the search for information by using specific orders and request for information is to be reported.
During this entire process, the intelligence officer is continually supervising the execution of the orders and request which have been issued. A. Collection of Information Collection – is the system exploitation of sources of information by collection agencies and the delivery of the information obtained to the proper intelligence section. Intelligence Officer must insure continuous input of reliable information concerning the disposition, strength, composition and movement of the hostile forces, as well as information concerning weather and terrain.
He must use every means at his disposal to gain information on the enemy forces within the area of interest which may affect the preparation and execution of his plans. Failure to exploit every source of information may deny important information of hostile capabilities, vulnerabilities, probable courses of actions. Source of information – are persons, things, or actions from which information bout the enemy, weather or terrain is derived. At the beginnings of an operation the intelligence officer does not lack information from which to produce intelligence for initial estimates because many sources will be available to him.
These sources will include maps, air, photos, enemy documents, enemy materials, prisoners of war, and weather forecasts. Collection Agency – is any person, unit or activity that collect and/or processes information by research, surveillance, interrogation or other exploitation of resources. It is the responsibility of everyone to collect information. Collection police, signal, ordinance, etc. ) c. Processing of Information Processing – is the step which intelligence is created from the raw material of information. It consists of three distinct steps: 1) The recording of information so that it can be compared with other items on hand. ) The evaluation of information or order to determine its intelligence value. 3) The interpretation of the information in relation to other information and intelligence on hand in order to draw conclusions regarding its meaning. Evaluation – information is of small value unless it has been analyze with respect to its pertinence, the reliability of the officer and agency and its pertinence, he reliability of the officer and agency and its probable accuracy. The intelligence Officer must examine each item of information as soon as it is received to determine its intelligence value.
This examination may be either elaborated or instant, depending upon the circumstances. Is the information needed immediately or at some future time? Are the source and agency reliable? Is the information confirmed or collaborated by previous received information or previous produced intelligence. Interpretation of information consist of determining its significance with aspect to other information or previously collected and processed intelligence, and finally drawing conclusions as the probable meaning of the information.
Evaluation and interpretation together are the essential steps in processing. Keep in mine that the commander wants intelligence and not merely a compilation of information. D. Dissemination and use of Intelligence The next phase of the intelligence cycle is the dissemination and use of intelligence. Intelligence is the end result of all intelligence activities. To be effective, it must be disseminated to the commander, his staff, and others who require it in roper form and on time serve its purpose.
The commander received intelligence from the intelligence officer in the form of intelligence estimate. The intelligence estimates gives the commander the best possible picture of the area of operation sand the enemy without irrelevant details. It is the intelligence officer’s Job to weight the intelligence he produces and to present it clearly and concisely using graphic means instead of “wordy’ pictures whenever possible. The intelligence estimate brings together significant aspect of the weather, terrain and the enemy.
It enumerates and discusses the enemy’s capabilities, his nakedness as well as his favorable qualities, and if warranted, draw conclusions as to the relative probability of the adoption of the enemy capabilities and their effect basic responsibility of the intelligence officer. The commander uses the intelligence estimate, selects the courses of action which is most likely to succeed. Dissemination to other users are accomplished by means of messages, (radio, messenger, or by any rapid means of signal communication) and personal contact (telephone, personal reports, integrating report, operating orders, and other special reports).