Plato In the course of only two decades, Emotional Intelligence (E’) concept has become a very important indicator of a person’s knowledge, skills and abilities in workplace, school, and personal life. This thesis aims to investigate the logic behind the E’, its validity, and how public universities like Indiana University can contribute to the development of El in their undergraduate education system. Throughout the paper I will address the following questions: 1. Is El an important indicator of intelligence just as IQ is? 2. Is El an innate human ability or can be developed throughout life? 3.
Is there a connection between academic success and E’? 4. Is it necessary for public universities to invest in El development? 5. What role does university undergraduate education play in developing E’? . What can universities do to further improve their students’ E’? By addressing these questions in chronological order, this thesis analyzes and summarizes the empirical evidence on El and suggests areas for further investigation and application of El theory in the university setting. The overall research results suggest that El plays a significant role in the Job performance, motivation, decision making, successful management, and leadership.
Applying El methodology in higher education can benefit students in their professional lives and 4 Everyone experiences and relates to feelings and emotions. Emotions contain valuable information about relationships, behavior, and practically every aspect of the human world around us. Until very recently, the concept of emotional intelligence has been ignored due to the rise of scientific management and the myth that emotions of any kind are disruptive in the workplace (Robbins, Judge, 2009).
However, the most recent empirical research shows that emotions can be constructive and do contribute to enhanced performance and better decision making both at work and in private life. As more and more people realize and accept that emotional intelligence s Just as important to professional success as technical skills, organizations are increasingly using El testing when they hire, evaluate, and promote personnel (Developing Strong “People Skills”, 2008). Using El as a comprehensive indicator of intelligence proves to have positive effect on organizations’ success and future prosperity (Hughes, 2009).
In the course of these two last decades El researchers have developed three major models that attempt to encompass this concept. They include ability, mixed, and trait El models. The main difference in these three categories is whether models’ authors perceive El as an innate human trait or a impotence that can be systematically developed over time. Thus, measuring El differs per model varying from strict ability testing with right and wrong answers to subjective self-report types of measurement.
Even though many researchers believe that El is based on inborn abilities that vary per person, most of them agree that El can be improved through training, programming, and therapy (Bar-on, 2005). John D. Mayer, one of the three authors of the ability El model, summarized the importance to measure El as an experiential competence that can and should be developed in the following statement: -?In regard to measuring emotional intelligence – I am a great believer that criterion-report (that is, ability testing) is the only adequate method to employ.
Intelligence is an ability, and is directly measured only by having people answer questions and evaluating the correctness of those answers. L In general, the ability testing is considered more reliable and popular among other types of El tests, indicating that II is a learned trait and can be improved over time (Pain, 2009). The applicable El skills, measurement factors, and methods to develop El will be considered later in the thesis. What is Emotional Intelligence? Before investigating the methodology behind El and its applicability to a public university setting, the proper definition should be introduced and thoroughly explored.
Intelligence is a rather tricky and multifaceted concept. Unlike abstract intelligence, intelligence, which is measured with IQ tests, emotional intelligence refers to the ability to understand and relate to people. Researchers have been defining El differently depending on the field of their study and the depth of their research. El is generally defined as an individual’s ability to accurately perceive reality so that to understand and regulate their own emotional responses as well as adapt and respond to others (Mayer, Salvoes, 1997; Paltrier, 2002).
Later, Mayer and Salvoes defined El more specifically as -?the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer, Salvoes, 1997)1. The most recent definition that attempts to cover the whole construct of El describes it as the ability, capacity, skill, or potential to feel, use, communicate, recognize, remember, describe, identify, learn from, manage, understand and explain emotions (Hein, 2007).
Based on the definitions mentioned above, El can be understood as a person’s ability to: 1 . Be self-aware (to recognize his/her own emotions when experiencing them) 2. Detect emotions in others 3. Manage emotional cues and information (Robbins, Judge, 2009). So, what is emotion? The word emotion comes from the Latin word -?move”, which means “to move from. ” According to Webster 1828 Dictionary, emotion is “a moving of the mind or soul” (Pain, 2009). Historically, the word emotion has been associated with a strong sense of feelings or drama.
Today, however, with the thorough research in psychology, sociology, and anthropology, the range of emotions that constitutes personality is considered very broad and cannot be ignored and written off the books as a matter of irrational expression. There are dozens of emotions, including anger , enthusiasm, envy, fear, frustration, embarrassment, disgust, happiness, hate, jealousy, Joy, love, surprise, and sadness. Many researchers have agreed on six essentially universal emotions – anger, fear, sadness, happiness, disgust, and surprise – with most other emotions included within these six categories (Robbins,
Judge, 2009). A more general way to classify emotions is by dividing them into positive and negative ones. The following diagram divides emotions into several categories depending on their positivist. So, we can think of positive effect as a mood dimension consisting of positive emotions such as excitement, cheerfulness at the high end and the boredom, tiredness at the low end. The basic premise of this emotions diagram is that no matter what emotion one experiences, it can be classified and labeled.
The essence of being emotionally intelligent for an individual is to successfully recognize where s/ e and others stand on this emotions continuum and manage emotions in a constructive way to boost motivation, increase productivity, arrive at better decisions, and satisfy emotional needs. Origins of the Concept called -?The Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals]. Darwin argued that emotional expression is essential for proper adaptation of species. Why do we have emotions? What role do they serve? Darwin believed that emotions developed over time to help people survive.
According to him, emotions are useful because they motivate people to engage in actions that are important for survival (Darwin, 1899 ). Evolutionary psychologists also suggest that every emotion serves some useful purpose that eventually comes down to the matter of survival (Matthews, 2004). 8 In the asses several influential researchers in the intelligence field of study had begun to recognize the importance of non-intellective factors on intelligent behavior such as psychological mindedness, perception, human emotional states, awareness, and others.
In the asses Humanistic psychologists such as Abraham Mason describe how people can build emotional strength by acknowledging and satisfying their emotional needs. In 1983, Howard Gardener’s -?Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences introduced the idea of multiple intelligences which included Interpersonal intelligence (the ability to understand the intentions, motivations and desires of other people) and Interpersonal intelligence (the ability to understand oneself, to appreciate one’s feelings, fears and motivations) (Gardner, 1983).
In Gardener’s view, traditional types of intelligence, such as ‘Q, fail to fully explain people’s cognitive ability (Smith, 2002). Thus, even though the concept was called different names, there was a common realization that intelligence is a more complex concept that goes beyond prior definitions. The first use of the term “Emotional Intelligence” is attributed to Wayne Pane’s doctoral thesis, -?A Study of Emotion: Developing Emotional Intelligence] published in 1985 (Barrett, Salvoes, 2002). As a result of the growing acknowledgement by professionals of the newly born construct, the research on the topic continued in the asses.
The publication of Daniel Salesman’s best seller -?Emotional Intelligence: Why It Can Matter More Than ‘IQ made the term widely popularized. In his bestseller, Coleman argued that in today’s rapidly evolving world a person’s El or “emotional quotient” (CEQ) is the most important predicator of success. Later, Coleman published a follow-up book called -?Working with Emotional Intelligence], that focuses on how El factors affect success in the workplace. The concepts of El and CEQ become ever more important as we shift from a manufacturing to a 9 service-based economy.
More and more researchers in the El related areas of study confirm that II helps predict personal and professional success (Hein, 2007). Current Literature and Research Analysis Major empirical resources for this thesis come from the Salesman’s books, Peter Salvoes and John D. Mayor’s research articles, K. V. Peptides and A. Abraham’s -?Trait emotional intelligence] of 2001, Bearberry, Travis and Greaves, Jean’s “Emotional Intelligence 2. 0″(2009) and other internet sources such as El official websites and online training materials.
These sources differ in their approaches, viewpoints on E’, and the depth of empirical analysis. However, looking at El from different spots in the field to be further investigated. The most recent empirical evidence suggests that El is an ability that can be and should be developed through training, programming, and therapy (Bar-on, 2005). This is why the focus of this paper is the ability model of El that is used in constructing a typical El test such as EMCEES. Why El is an important aspect of intelligence and deserves thorough consideration will be discussed in the following section.
Why El is Important? El has always been a controversial concept. It has supporters and detractors. The arguments for and against the viability of El include: For: 1. Intuitive appeal: almost everyone would agree that it is good to possess street smarts and social intelligence both in professional and personal lives. 2. El predicts criteria that matter: more and ore evidence is suggesting that a high level of El means a person will perform well on the Job (SSTphone CГ¶t, Christopher T. H. 10 Miners, 2006).
Another study found that being able to recognize emotions in others’ facial expressions and to emotionally _eavesdrop’ predicted peer ratings of how valuable those people were to their organization (H. A. Libeling, N. Mambas, 2002). Finally, a review of fifty-nine studies indicated that, overall, El correlated moderately with Job performance (Robbins, Judge, 2009). 3. El is biologically based: Several studies have shown that people with damage to the part of the brain that over’s emotional processing (lesions in an area of the preferential cortex) score significantly lower than others on El tests (Gardner, 1983).
Even though these brain- damaged people scored no lower on standard measures of intelligence than people without the same brain damage, they were still impaired in normal decision making. This fact suggests that El is neurologically based in a way that’s unrelated to IQ and that people who suffer neurological damage score lower on El and make poorer decisions. Against: 1. El is vague: most of us wouldn’t think that being self-aware or elf-motivated or having empathy is a matter of intelligence.
Then, different researches focus on different skills, making it difficult to get a comprehensive definition of El. As one reviewer noted, -?The concept of El has now become so broad and the components so variegated that… It is no longer even an intelligence concept. ] (Locke, 2005) 2. El can’t be measured: the validity of some of the ability questions is questionable. Other measures are self-reported, meaning there is no right or wrong answer. The measures of El are diverse, and researches have not subjected them to a usurious study as they have personality and IQ (Hein, 2007). 11 3.
The validity of El is suspect: some critiques argue that because El is so closely related to intelligence and personality, once you control for these factors, El has nothing unique to offer (Locke, 2005). But there hasn’t been enough research on whether El goes beyond those parameters. In response to the criticism, John Mayer, David Caruso, Peter Salvoes wrote a famous article called -?Emotional Intelligence Meets Traditional Standards for an Intelligence] in 2000. The authors list the following as necessary criteria for declaring something an intelligence: 1. Intelligence intelligence must form a related set.
In other words, they must be inter-correlated, they must rise and fall as a group. 3. The abilities must have a significant positive correlation to traditional intelligence, without being so highly correlated that they are just another indication of traditional intelligence. 4. The abilities of the intelligence should “develop with age and experience. ” Based on their research, they have concluded that El does indeed meet these traditional criteria of a standard intelligence and is, therefore, a unique and independent indicator of intelligence Mayer, Caruso, Salvoes, 2000).
Nonetheless the debate, varied definitions and opinions, the research is increasingly showing that emotions are critical to rational thinking, because they provide important information about how we understand the world around us (Detente, 1995). Throughout my research I have identified several major reasons that explain why El is an essential concept worthy of proper consideration. These reasons include motivation and creativity, Job performance, decision making, negotiation, leadership, personal growth (self-actualization), and globalization and diversity management.
These are the aspects of a typical person’s life that are 12 affected by how emotionally intelligent s/he is. Now, each reason will be addressed in greater detail. Motivation and Creativity It is no surprise that moods and emotions significantly affect our psyche. When we feel good about ourselves and the world around we tend to find greater intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. In turn, this motivation helps us express out personality better and be more creative and optimistic (Murray, 2009).
El relates to contemporary theories of motivation (including Mascots hierarchy of needs and self-efficacy theory) hat are based on evaluation of your social awareness and emotional responsiveness in a given situation. Thus, being emotionally intelligent, being aware of emotions and their causes can help stay attuned to motivated attitude, express and project it on others, and produce better results at work and in personal life. Additionally, El contributes to ethical behavior and creates positive work environment, influencing employees’ Job attitudes in a healthy way (Barrett, Salvoes, 2002).
Job Performance Expressing organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal interactions at org can be tiresome and counter-productive for employees. The true challenge arises when employees have to project one emotion while simultaneously feeling another (Robbins, Judge, 2009). This disparity is called emotional dissonance. Accumulated feelings of frustration, anger, and resentment lead to exhaustion and burnout (Murray, 2009). Felt emotions are an individual’s actual emotions.
In contrast, displayed emotions are those that the organization requires workers to show and considers appropriate in a given Job: -?Effective managers have learned to be serious hen giving an employee a negative performance evaluation and to hide their anger when they’ve been passed over for promotional (Robbins, Judge, 2009). Therefore, at 13 to get used to constant -?acting]. This acting can be acquired on either surface or deep level. Surface acting is hiding one’s inner feelings and foregoing emotional expressions in response to display rules.
On the other hand, deep acting is trying to modify one’s true inner feelings based on displayed rules (Merging, Dints, 2008). Surface acting deals with one’s displayed emotions, and deep acting deals with one’s felt emotions. Research shows that surface acting is more stressful to employees than deep acting because it entails -?feigning one’s true emotions] (Grander, 2003). Being emotionally intelligent helps acquire deep acting skills and cope with emotional stress and burnout at work. Several studies suggest that El plays an important role in Job performance.
One study looked at the successes and failures of eleven American presidents – from Franklin Roosevelt to Bill Clinton. They were evaluated on six qualities- communication, organization, political skill, vision, cognitive style, and emotional intelligence. It was found that the key quality that differentiated the successful from the unsuccessful was emotional intelligence (Robbins, Judge, 2009). Decision Making Many researchers agree that the key to good decision making is to employ both thinking and feeling in one’s decisions (Gardner, 1983).
Positive moods and emotions seem to help decision making. People experiencing positive emotions are more likely to use heuristics to help make good decisions quickly. Positive emotions also enhance problem-solving skills so that positive people find better solutions to problems (Seen, 2001). Negotiation Everybody knows that negotiation is an emotional process. Being aware of emotions and moods of oneself and others can help manage stressful situations and improve conflict resolution. 4 Active listening techniques and reading non-verbal cues to recognize and understand emotions are elements of both El and successful negotiations (Power, 2009). Leadership Effective leaders rely on emotional appeals to help convey their messages. -?When leaders feel excited, enthusiastic, and active, they may be more likely to energize their subordinates and convey a sense of efficacy, competence, optimism, and enjoyment (Robbins, Judge, 2009). Therefore, successful leaders are also emotionally intelligent. Personal Growth Being able to identify and manage emotions is about staying aware and open to change.
Emotional intelligence conditions a person to be flexible, responsive to intelligent people achieve better results at work, school, and personal life and are more successful and fulfilled. They also insist on that personal growth can be achieved through developing El competences (Davis, 2009). Globalization and Diversity The frequency and intensity of emotions vary across cultures. In China, people report experiencing fewer positive and negative emotions than people in other cultures, and the emotions they experience are less intense (Did, Dinner, 2004).
Therefore, norms for the expression of emotions differ across cultures. It may seem that being emotionally intelligent in one culture may not guarantee success across other cultures. However, the evidence suggests that El is a multifaceted ability that transcends cultural boundaries and allows a person to attune to diverse backgrounds (Corroboree, Greensward, Rowe, 2009). 1 5 All in all, El contributes significantly to the improved quality and productivity, templates innovation and change in an organization as well as in person.
Therefore, it is important to learn ways to improve El both on the personal and organizational levels. Measures of El In order to identify ways to improve E’, one first needs to understand the building blocks of E’, the factors that constitute this complex construct. Earlier in this paper, I introduced the definition of E’, concluding that El has three main components to it: self-awareness, social awareness, and interpersonal and interpersonal management of emotions. Based on the definition and main El components, what are the main actors that El can be measured upon? P.
Salvoes and J. D. Mayer, the leading researchers on emotional intelligence since asses, proposed a model that identified four different factors of emotional intelligence: 1. Perceiving Emotions-?the ability to correctly identify how people are feeling. 2. Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought-?the ability to create emotions and to integrate your feelings into the way you think. 3. Understanding Emotions-?the ability to understand the causes of emotions. 4. Managing Emotions-?the ability to create effective strategies that use your emotions o help you achieve a goal. Mayer, Caruso, Salvoes, 2000) According to these researchers, the four factors are, “arranged from more basic psychological processes to higher, more psychologically integrated processes. For example, the lowest level branch concerns the (relatively) simple abilities of perceiving and expressing emotion. In contrast, the highest level branch concerns the conscious, reflective regulation of 16 emotion” (Salvoes, Cluster, 1997). Thus, these factors are developed in a chronological way through continuous effort and training. The Mayer-Salvoes-Caruso
Emotional Intelligence Test (EMCEES) became the result of their research in the field of the ability-based model of El. The following graph represents the key elements that II is measured upon in a sample EMCEES. Based solely on competence and emotional experience. This experience can then be used for strategic integration of emotions into decision making and emotional management process. According to Donald Pain, an employment consultant and a contemporary El researcher, El can also be viewed as a self-oriented ability and as a people skill in the following way: Personal competencies:
Self-awareness (knowing one’s internal states, presences, resources, and intuitions) Self-regulation (managing one’s internal states, impulses, and resources) Motivation (emotional tendencies that guide or facilitate reaching goals) Social competencies: Empathy (awareness of others’ feelings, needs, and concerns) Social skills (adeptness at inducing “desirable responses”) (Pain, 2009) 17 This approach can be graphically represented in the following chart that also describes what personal abilities are being measured.
If the two models above are combined, the following representation will cover the instruct of El in a more comprehensive way: 18 This graphical representation includes both self and social approaches, four factors of El suggested by the EMCEES as well as personal abilities that El is measured upon. Therefore, the EMCEES permits to measure and identify strong and weak points in an individual and enhance El abilities after receiving the feedback.
Daniel Coleman summarized this comprehensive approach and developed a framework of five elements that are at the core of emotional intelligence. These elements constitute the abilities that characterize and distinguish emotionally intelligent arson: 1 . Self-Awareness: People with high emotional intelligence are usually very self-aware. They understand their emotions, and because of this, they don’t let their feelings rule them.
They are confident because they trust their intuition and don’t let their emotions get out of control. Also, they are willing to take an honest look at themselves. Many people believe that this self-awareness is the most important part of emotional intelligence. 2. Self-Regulation: This is the ability to control emotions and impulses. People who slaughtered typically don’t allow themselves to become too angry or Jealous, and they don’t make impulsive, careless decisions. They think before they act.