The research proposal was submitted as a partial fulfillment of Masc.. Clinical Psychology Introduction “In a very real sense we have two minds, one that thinks and one that feels” ; Daniel Coleman In order to adapt and survive in the environment, human beings have to tackle with their emotions. Emotions are central to the development of our morality. Our empathetic and altruistic behavior Is determined by the emotions we produce, and how they creatively process our minds.
Emotions control the way human beings think and make sense about the world around them. Emotions provide individuals with a powerful driving force called motivation which can be either positive or negative and the experiences as a result of such emotions have a specific physiological pattern ND activity (Chatter, 2011 Raffled (2002) stated that the social intelligence gave rise to the sole concept of emotional intelligence.
One of the ways in which Emotional Intelligence is defined, indicates the combined factors in which a person has the ability to feel motivated about himself, experiences mood swings and regulations, can take over his impulses and has the ability to persist frustration level, hence cope up with everyday lifestyle (Coleman, 1995). According to the Emotional Intelligence Model (Salvoes& Mayer, 1 990), emotional Intelligence Is recognized as the ability f an Individual to gulled his or her own feelings, rationalize among those feelings as well as Incorporate such feelings Into thinking and actions.
The model has been widely accepted as a valid model of emotional intelligence which has a strong this field. The model focuses on four main abilities, namely perception, assimilation, understanding and regulation of emotions. Perception falls at the basic level in a hierarchy whereas regulation of emotions falls at a very high level of competency. Perception refers to the ability to recognize one’s own emotions and also of others. Assimilation refers to those emotions which are generated for the purpose of communication.
Emotional understanding refers to the ability to explore emotions and also to study the result of those emotions. Regulation of emotions refers to control one’s own emotions as well as others and to regulate it for growth and further understanding. The worldwide cause of about 7. 6 million deaths in 2008 according to statistics is cancer (WHO, 2013). Cancer is a combination of a group of diseases which affect various parts of the body. Other operationally used generic terms for cancer are malignant tumors and neoplasm.
One important feature of cancer is the speedy production of abnormal cells growing ahead of the usual boundaries, as a result spreading to various parts of the body and affecting the related organs. Among all other cancer types, head and neck cancer has a divergent demographic position in India. It is the upcoming as one of the major health related issue in India today. The estimated account of head and neck cancer occurring in Asia is 55. 7%, especially in India. In India, head and neck cancer accounts for almost 30% of all types of cancer (Giuliani, 2013).
Emotional intelligence determines the ability of individuals to identify clear emotional states which are related to various emotional expressing tendencies (Mayer &Salvoes, 1993). Individuals who have high emotional intelligence, have more tendencies to be well adapted to cognitive and emotional processes required for a successful for traumatic acceptance. Thus, it is relevant to understand the importance of emotional intelligence in order to understand the acceptance towards traumatic events or to the diagnosis and treatment of cancer patients.
Recent research focuses on how cancer patients regulate their depressed feelings and understand them. Even though the patients might have an understanding regarding their feelings, at times they lack the ability to deal with a situation. In that case, the feeling of anxiety and depression increases among the patients (Schmidt, 2002). Emotional Intelligence has three main components namely, clarity of feelings, attention towards one’s feelings and mood repair (Salvoes, et al, 1995).
Each of these components has a role to play in a person’s perception of his or her own understanding of feelings. Therefore, it is important to know the role of emotional intelligence in how cancer patients cope with their condition. It is also important to Ochs on the relationship between emotional intelligence and gender differences. Research focuses on the fact that emotional intelligence and gender differences require special attention (Nagging and Redhead 2011).
Studies have found significant differences between the relationship of emotional intelligence and among males and females (Mad and Khan, 2009). Even if patients have the ability to deal with their feelings in terms of anxiety and depression, men and women are emotionally intelligent in their own ways (Schmidt, 2002). While women are more aware of their emotions and empathetic, also has the ability to adapt to situations more s compared to women and have a more optimistic attitude; men are also able to handle stress much better as compared to women (Mad and Khan, 2009).
Thus, there seem to be a major competition between both the sexes when they are to relate with emotional intelligence. Hence, the main rationale of the study is to understand whether both male and female cancer patients show emotional differences in dealing with the traumatic experience of the cancer and its treatment in terms of emotional intelligence since cancer effects the main components of emotional intelligence inalienability of feelings, attention towards one’s feelings and DOD repair (Salvoes, et al, 1995).
Review of Literature Gender differences in emotional intelligence A review by Nagging and Redhead (2011) has concluded that females have higher emotional intelligence than males and this has been reasoned to be because of the individual differences caused by expectations of the society and people around where girls are expected to be more emotionally expressive than females. These results refuted the findings of another research study conducted previously, which concluded that males have higher emotional intelligence than females.
Many other searches have been conducted in the same area, and have found contradictory findings, thus creating necessity for verification of the gender differences in emotional intelligence (Mad, Bananas; Khan, 2009). Effect of cancer on emotional intelligence Though the disability or stress model of chronic illness states that there is impairment in the emotional and social functioning of people with cancer, the research studies propose different results. A study by Noel et al (1998) has concluded that there are no changes in the levels of emotional functioning in cancer patients.
A port by Vassal (2003) has stated that there are changes in the emotional functioning, along with social and behavioral changes among people suffering from cancer. These contradictory findings make it necessary for investigation in the above area. Effects of treatment of cancer A study by Socio et al (2009) has concluded that treatment for cancer, evaluated after 3 years of beginning treatment, brings about a decrease in the quality of life, which further worsens by the intensity of the treatment.
Vassal (2003) also reported that treating cancer has several side-effects on the human brain, which differs according to the treatment condition used. It has been emphasized in the study that chemotherapy brings emotional changes in an individual which are caused by cognitive changes such as slowed thinking, decreased attention, etc, hence causing decreased ability to express emotions, feel self-confident, etc.
Need for Emotional Intelligence among Cancer patients A study by Ere, Extremer and Trill (2013) stated that there is a positive correlation between Emotional intelligence and health related quality of life in patients with cancer thereby stating higher the emotional intelligence higher the quality of life and ice versa. Another study by Patented and Kaput (2005) has stated that emotional intelligence plays a role in determining the psychological adjustment in patients has an effect on satisfaction and vulnerability to stress.
These findings insist on the importance of emotional intelligence among cancer patients, hence making it essential to be studied. Role of Emotional intelligence in Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer A study conducted by Smith, Peptides, Green and Seville (2012) has concluded that Emotional intelligence in negatively correlated with worry in the early stages of diagnosis of cancer, I. E. Low levels of Emotional intelligence leads to more worrying about the disorder among cancer patients.
It has also been found that increased emotional intelligence I. E. , awareness of one’s feelings and emotions helps in reducing the incidence of psychological disorders among patients suffering from cancer and hence reduces the development of co-morbid disorders. This in turn makes the chances of improvement better, thereby making treatment more effective (Schmidt, 2002). Tit-n The aim of the study is to compare the emotional intelligence of men and women who have been in treatment for cancer for 3 years Hypotheses
There is no significant difference in the Emotional Intelligence of men and women who have been in treatment for cancer for 3 years Methodology The method proposed for the research is elaborated in this section. Research Design As the study focuses on analyzing the research problem by statistical data than explaining or elaborating the effect, cause, meaning and experience of a particular phenomenon quantitative research is chosen over qualitative research. Based on the variables of the research quantitative design is applicable for the data collection and analysis.
Further useful and innovative implications, improvement of new coping exchanges and the patient’s quality of life can be developed from the data of the research which is statistically analyses. According to Colonial (1999) Quantitative approach has a well-researched validity and reliability as well as a structured format and it is not subjective rather objectively oriented. Sample and Sampling procedures Sample group. As the study requires a sample of individuals who have been treated for cancer after 3 years the procedure of purposive sampling is opted.
The sample group size will be 30 men and 30 women who have been in treatment for cancer for 3 years between the ages 25-35. Inclusion Criteria. Men and women aged between 25-35 years from middle class background Men and women who hoveringly a minimum of 3 years of cancer treatment Exclusion Criteria. Men and women who have been diagnosed with head and neck cancer but no treatment given Men and women who are treated for cancer with other physical illness or mental illness Operational Definition Emotional Intelligence.
Emotional Intelligence is the ability of an individual to control tackle the needs of the situation. Head and Neck cancer. These are cancers which are biologically similar. These start from cavity in the mouth region, nose region and also bread across pharynx and larynx. Tools for Data Collection Socio-Demographic Profile. Socio-demographic Profile will consist of details such as age, gender, income, place, relationship status, etc. Of the samples. Emotional Intelligence scale. Emotional Intelligence Scale.
The scale was developed by Hyde, Lethe and Dear. The scale is a valid and reliable measure of Emotional Intelligence, which has been standardized in the Indian context. Procedure A letter from the college asking for permission to the Administration Department of the Cancer Institute’s for the study, which will have the purpose of the research with he ethical considerations such as confidentiality, etc. Then the informed consent from the administration and the subjects, will be obtained before the commencement of the study.
Each subject will receive the informed consent form and the questionnaire after getting prior. After each subject is seated comfortably and the personal data sheet and the questionnaire will be administered precisely based on the instructions that are prescribed, face to face data collection will be opted and the completed response sheets will be collected. Data Analysis To test the hypothesis based on the aim of the study and the objective of the study: . The responses will be scored and analyses using SPAS software after the response sheets are collected. 2.
Using descriptive statistics the personal and demographic details will be analyses. 3. Independent sample t-test will be used to find the significant difference in emotional intelligence between men and women treated for head and necromancer. Implications (I) The results can help us understand if men and women vary in emotional intelligence and apply interventions to improve their emotional intelligence accordingly. (it) The results can be used to counsel patients on their emotional intelligence level and getting them equipped for the general life emotionally.