There are many aspects of intelligence that influence human beings and their overall functioning. Intelligence explains a humans ability to solve problems, communicate, be self-aware, plan, express emotion, reason, understand and learn. Hopefully, this paper will broaden the sense of what exactly Intelligence entails and allow understanding of what Influences various types of Intelligence, as well as how different Intelligences can Influence each other. To start, the first article that will be discussed is, Can everyone be highly intelligent? The first article to be discussed goes into detail about this very question.
The purpose of the research study is to test the hypothesis that Americans believe only select individuals have the potential to be highly intelligent later in life, as compared to South Asian Indian cultures (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012). The study that was done involved 52 women and 27 men from a university in California, United States with a mean age of 19. 1 and comparing and contrasting them with 41 women and 28 men from a university in Bangor, India, with a mean age of 22. 4 years (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012). These people were all given three pairs of statements and had to choose one choice from each pair.
The first pair of statements were “Everyone has the Inborn potential to become highly everyone has the Inborn potential to become highly Intelligent”, the second pair were ” Everyone has the potential to become highly intelligent if they want everyone has the potential to become highly intelligent if they want to” and the last pair of statements were “All people have the inborn potential to become highly intelligent, but not all people end up realizing their potential”/”Some people just do not have the inborn potential to become highly intelligent” (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012).
The results how that the conception of intelligence does vary across cultures (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012). Other similar studies were done to further Interpret this finding. For instance, the same sets of students from the universities stated above, were asked to rank on a scale of 1-6, 1 being strongly disagree and 6 being strongly agree (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012). Heir agreement on the following statements; “Every child can become an Lintels If they receive a good education and work very hard” and ” Every child can become a Nobel prize winner if they receive a good education and work ere hard” (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012). The findings show that American students seem to interpret high intelligence as though only few people on an Einstein level and in contrast, South Asian Indian students believe high intelligence can be achieved by everyone through hard work and a good education (a degree holder) (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012).
According to the research, people in America believe that only certain individuals have the ability to become highly intelligent whereas individuals in South Asian Indian areas believe that almost everyone has the ability to intelligence beliefs, the American culture seemed to lean toward in unequal distribution of high intelligence (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012).
This means that Americans, as previously stated, believe few individuals have the potential to high intelligence, but those who have a higher chance are more likely to be a part of higher income areas because of the available resources (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012). Schools with more money will be able to provide more resources for their students to reach higher goals. South Asian Indians believe that everyone has the ability to be highly intelligent, so these individuals have a more equal system of beliefs (Rattan, Savant & Naiad, 2012).
In the counseling field this would be particularly important because as a counselor, the counselor has to be able to aid the individual with finding their own personal goals and help them figure out a plan to achieve those goals. This means the counselor needs to be fully aware of cultural beliefs because, as these studies show, every culture as a different view on how high intelligence can be achieved. This study is a good basis for counselors to keep in mind due to the fact that different ultras take the phrase “high intelligence” and interpret it differently.
If a counselor is assisting a student of Asian descent, their belief system may be completely different from their own so that is why it is important to keep an open mind at all times and be able to accept the believes of others while in the counseling scenario. The next article, An Empirical Analysis of Three Intelligences, studies social intelligence, cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence. The main purpose of this study is to determine the relationships between all three of these intelligences Crowner, 2012).
The first intelligence that was discovered was social intelligence and is defined as the ability to understand and manage other human beings (Crowner, 2012). Emotional intelligence involves the accurate perception of emotion along with the ability to adapt emotions and understand emotions while using emotional knowledge in the process of thought (Crowner, 2012). The last type of intelligence, cultural intelligence, involves the ability of an individual to adapt to diverse cultural situations effectively (Crowner, 2012).
The four main hypotheses that this study had ere that emotional intelligence is part of the make up of social intelligence, cultural intelligence is a subset of social intelligence, cultural intelligence has pieces that are distinct from emotional intelligence and that cultural intelligence has some components that overlap with emotional intelligence (Crowner, 2012). To test the four hypotheses, the sample size involved 467 business students (205 males and 262 females) ranging from ages 17-53 years old (Crowner, 2012). The participants had to complete the Torsos Social Intelligence Scale, the Wong and Law Emotional
Intelligence Scale and the Cultural Intelligence Scale, Self-Report (Crowner, 2012). The results of the study show that there was a poor trend stating that emotional intelligence is not a subset of social intelligence and that cultural intelligence is not a subset of social intelligence, so hypotheses one and two were rejected (Crowner, 2012). The findings of testing hypothesis three show that cultural intelligence has components that are distinct from emotional intelligence, meaning that hypothesis three was accepted (Crowner, 2012).
The fourth hypothesis was also accepted, meaning the data was statistically significant and there was a strong correlation (Crowner, 2012). In conclusion to this article, social intelligence was not found to be supernatant (the main part) to emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence (Crowner, 2012). The correlation between cultural and social intelligences needs to be examined an studied further, as this study did not support the proposed second hypothesis that cultural intelligence is a subset of social intelligence (Crowner, 2012).
Another relationship must be present in order to fully relate the two and Crowner states that motional intelligence may be subordinates to social intelligence (Crowner, 2012). Hypothesis three was supported as mentioned above, to show that emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence are separate entities but are both related to social intelligence in distinct ways (Crowner, 2012). The fourth hypothesis is supported by the research meaning that cultural intelligence is grounded in emotional intelligence and also shows that a person can have high cultural intelligence and lower emotional intelligence (Crowner, 2012).
The third article that was investigated was the article, When Getting Angry is Smart: Emotional Preferences and Emotional Intelligence. This article’s main purport is to compare people who prefer to feel useful emotions, such as anger, even if the are unpleasant compared to people who would rather feel happy in times where anger should be evident and not show emotion in situations when it is necessary (Ford & Tamari, 2012).
The hypothesis of this study is that individuals who express their emotion are able to understand and regulate them better and may be more emotionally intelligent compared to those who do not use any other emotions exec for pleasant emotions (Ford & Tamari, 2012). To test this hypothesis, the study consisted of 136 participants, 56% were women and 44% were men (Ford & Tamari, 2012). These participants were given three assessments, one being the Mayer-Salvoes-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, next the averaged GAP for the Fall and Spring Semesters to assess Cognitive Intelligence (Ford & Tamari, 2012).
For another assessment, the individuals were given situations where they would respond either in anger or happiness, and the extent to which the would react with the emotion (Ford & Tamari, 2012). The last assessment involved try motions, so the participants were asked to what extent they generally felt angry, annoyed and irritated and then the same with happy and pleasant emotions (Ford -earn-, 2012). The results show that the hypothesis can be accepted.
For instance, when a person is experiencing a useful emotion, like anger, when in a confrontational situation or a more pleasant emotion when facing a more collaborative (working wit others and using communication) situation, the person has a higher emotional intelligence (Ford & Tamari, 2012). When a person is feeling anger in a collaborative tuition and happiness in a confrontational situation, then the person has a lower emotional intelligence (Ford & Tamari, 2012).
The main point to take away from this study is that it is natural and normal to feel anger at times instead of wanting to fee good and be positive all of the time (Ford & Tamari, 2012). The more frequently a person wants to feel happy even in situations where anger is necessary, the emotional intelligence actually decreases because the emotions experienced are n counselors because they need to be able to tell their clients it is okay to feel anger, sadness and happiness when appropriate.
Some people may think it’s a negative thing to feel upset or sad when something negative happens to the person when in fact, it is a good that these emotions are being expressed instead of turned into an unhealthy emotion in a situation where it is not useful. Conflict Resolution and Adaptation in Normal Aging: The Role of Verbal Intelligence and Cognitive Reserve, was an interesting article.
The study presented the effects of cognitive aging on conflict resolution, meaning the ability to suppress and distract irrelevant information and conflict adaptation, the adaptation of conflict solution based on previously experienced conflict level (Puccini & Vales’, 2012). Another goal of the study was to determine if cognitive reserve and intelligence had a role against age-related deficits in both conflict resolution and conflict adaptation (Puccini & Vales’, 2012). A Strop test was administered to 23 adults without dementia, from ages 65-79 and then 22 younger adults, to be used as a control, ages 18-34 (Puccini & Vales’, 2012).
The study showed that the Strop Effect (response time) was larger in older adults and negatively correlated with verbal IQ (Puccini & Valleys, 2012). Beyond general slowing, cognitive aging causes a decrease in the ability of verbal conflict resolution, whereas conflict adaptation is preserved (Puccini & Valleys, 2012). According to the article, many years of formal education and cognitive reserve are associated with a lower rate of age-related performance slowing (Puccini & Vales’, 2012).
This means that having higher verbal intelligence skills can counteract the age-related impairment in verbal conflict resolution (Puccini & valets, 2012). Information used in this article relates to the field of clinical counseling because here may be older clients who are experiencing dementia and may be having difficulty recalling information or understanding the task that is being asked at that point in time so certain questions may be needed to be asked numerous times.
The client may also be experiencing verbal conflict and may be having difficulty communicating with the counselor. All of these articles go into great detail about difference areas of intelligence and how all of them affect the human mind whether it be emotionally, socially, or culturally, As a counselor, it is very important to understand intelligence because Ewing a counselor means the person will work with all types of clients, mentally disabled clients, clients from different cultural or social backgrounds and clients who just need guidance.