Terrorism: Intelligence and National Security - Essay Example

Three agencies that currently play a major role in the battle on errors will be the Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI), Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the Defense Intelligence Agency (DID). Discussion will be given on which agencies can be combined, what the roles of the agencies will be, and the function of each In the Intelligence community. Furthermore, discussion will be given to what counterterrorism and counterintelligence tools the agencies will have available to them and what policies should be put in place to help combat terrorism In the future.

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The tools that will be used for counterterrorism will be the use of Special Operations Forces (SOFT), unmanned aerial vehicle strikes (Vass), and cutting off funding to the terrorist organizations. Also the use of human intelligence, open source intelligence, and signal intelligence will be covered. To get a better understanding of the creation of this “super agency” details need to be giving about the agencies that will take part. The details will show history, how the agency works and how the agency affects counter-terrorism and intelligence gathering.

The first agency that will be discussed is the FBI. The FBI originated in 908 when Attorney General Charles J. Bonaparte selected special agents to be the sole Investigative force of the Department of Justice (Department of Justice). The FBI responsibilities include criminal law enforcement, domestic counterterrorism, and domestic counterintelligence (Ricochets, 2011). Like all intelligence agencies the attacks on Septet 1 1, 2001 brought change to the organization.

Furthermore, it was found that the attacks may have been stopped If the FBI headquarters would have followed up on information provided to them from the Phoenix and Minneapolis field offices. This one event called for the reorganization of the entire Bi’s national security framework (Ricochets, 2011). Then in 2005 the call was answered when the FBI officially established a National Security Branch (INS) which was responsible for all counterterrorism/counterintelligence delusions and also the Director of Intelligence.

By creating this division within the FBI, any counterintelligence and counterterrorism efforts where now located in one location. The second organization that will be incorporated Into the “super agency” Is the Central Intelligence Agency or CIA. The CIA was established In 1947 by then President Harry Truman. The National Security Act charged the CIA with coordinating the nation’s intelligence activities and correlating, evaluating, and disseminating ‘OFF inception has five main functions: 1. O advise the National Security Council in matters concerning such intelligence activities of the government departments and agencies as relate to national security 2. To make recommendations to the National Security Council for the coordination of such intelligence activities of the departments and agencies of the government as relate to national security 3. O correlate and evaluate the intelligence relating to national security, and to provide for the appropriate dissemination of such intelligence within the government, using, where appropriate, existing agencies and facilities 4. O perform for the benefit of existing intelligence agencies such additional services of common concern as the National Security Council determines can be more effectively accomplished centrally 5. To perform other such functions and duties related to intelligence affecting the national security as the National Security Council may from time to time direct. Ricochets, 2011) Further, the CIA cannot collect foreign intelligence on U. S. Citizens. Only special circumstances can CIA assets be used to gather information domestically and it takes the approval from senior leadership.

Another CIA downfall is that the agency does not have arrest authority and must rely on local law enforcement or other federal agencies to fulfill any arrest requirement. The third organization that will be part of the “super agency’ is the Defense Intelligence Agency (DID). The primary function of the DID is to provide military intelligence information to the Department of Defense and its leaders (About DID, 012). The DID was created due to the fact that all the military branches had their own intelligence divisions.

In the late sass’s a study group was created to study all the military intelligence agencies. The group concluded that each of the military intelligence branches duplicated the same work costing the tax payers millions of dollars. The recommendation from the group was to have one centralized military intelligence division thus the creation of the DID was formed (Ricochets, 2011). Now that a little background has been laid about the agencies that will be utilized n the creation of the United States super intelligence agencies the framework can now be laid.

First and foremost the agencies would keep their actually identities but would be headquartered. Headquartering the agencies together would aid in overall intelligence gathering activities. The FBI could use information that the CIA and/or the DID produces to make arrests or put in place other domestic counterterrorism strategies. The reason that the agencies would keep their identities is organizational structure. All of these agencies already have solid organizational structure and to estrous that could be catastrophic.

Each director of their respective organization would then need someone to report to and since this agency has both civilian and military personnel that person would be the President of the United States. However, the majority of the responsibility would fall under the Vice President. The reason for this is because the president does not have the time to run an organization and run the Nation, and also the vice president has a direct line to the President and can avoid any miscommunication that can come from passing information through multiple agencies.

Furthermore, the direct line to the president would only be utilized if the information being passed was needed to thwart a terrorist event that is to occur within days of the information being presented and it could Jeopardize the The roles of the CIA and FBI won’t differ much from how they are laid out today. The DID on the other hand will be dissolved within the agency. Both the CIA and the FBI do mission overseas, and the Aid’s sole mission is to provide intelligence on foreign militaries. This can be accomplished by both the CIA and the FBI, with the majority of foreign intelligence being handled by the CIA.

The U. S. Militaries foot print would still be part of the agencies they Just would not have their own separate intelligence branch. This could drastically cut the Department of Defense budget and move money to fund other homeland defense products. Another change will be how the intelligence is shared between the agencies, by housing the agencies in one facility and having one person appointed as the director will make each agency share all intelligence that it has gathered with one another. This can be used to help make sure that duplicate work is not being produced.

Another change, and this change ill take an executive order from the president will be the use of the CIA to gather intelligence within the United States on U. S. Personnel. The CIA has highly trained operatives that could be utilized to infiltrate domestic terrorist groups, leaving the FBI out of certain missions. This is important as the FBI will still be the arresting agency but will not have an agent that may be compromised if the infiltration fails. Utilizing the CIA to accomplish the infiltration keeps the agencies unknown to the terrorist organization.

The last portion of the framework will be what this agency will be med and it will simply be labeled “The Agency’, as it incorporates the three most powerful intelligence groups in the United States if not the world. With the merger of the FBI, CIA, and the DID into one agency the counterterrorism and counterintelligence tools will be plentiful. One counterterrorism tool that the agency will have at their fingertips is the use of the United States military special operations forces. One such force that will be readily available is the Navy Seals.

The Navy Seals can be utilized in a wide variety of situations, from target assassinations of high refill terrorist leadership to Just gathering human intelligence on the ground. This team is a highly skilled military unit and is well trained on all aspects of counterterrorism and counterintelligence making them a versatile component of The Agency. With the President having oversight of organization, and also being the Commander and Chief of the Armed Forces getting approval to use the Navy Seals will come with less bureaucracy hold up.

There are downfalls to using the Navy Seals, one is how much force are the Seals to use in accomplishing a mission and are villain casualties Justified when completing the mission. These types of questions will always be asked and the Justification falls with the scope of the mission. The use of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle is another counterterrorism tool that can be used in fighting the war on terror. An over-simplistic view of an unmanned aircraft is that it is an aircraft with its aircrew removed and replaced by a computer system and a radio-link (Austin, 2010).

There are circumstances when having boots on the ground may not be the best answer in stopping or monitoring terrorist activity. For example allowing a known terrorist leader through a winding road in the center of Baghdad may be extremely difficult for a human in a vehicle on the ground and the person risks being caught. Using the Jabot follow the individual can make it easier as the LEAK can look down on all the roads and also safer because the LEAK can go almost is using it for targeted killing. Using the I-JAVA to conduct targeted assassinations keeps troops safe and can also limit civilian casualties.

The VA can also be utilized in domestic situations as the vehicle can take over head photos of known domestic restrict groups’ location. Just like using SOFT like the Navy Seals, the I-JAVA does have some problems it must face as well. One such problem is the fact that the I-JAVA has “blind spots” since the I-JAVA is operated totally via radio frequencies and there isn’t an actual pilot sitting within, certain things cannot be seen. With a fighter Jet the pilot can look around and verify that it isn’t going to collide with another aircraft.

The LEAK on the other hand does not have this luxury; cameras are used to send remote feeds back to a “pilot” who could be thousands of miles away. Being able to control funding to terrorist organizations is another vital counterterrorism tool that can be used. State sponsored terrorist organizations, like that of Hezbollah get funding from other countries. To be a terrorist is an expensive business and by cutting the funds terrorist operations can be hindered. Dodo so will take the corporation of all countries that provide support to the actual country funding the terrorist organization.

Placing economic sanctions on countries that support terrorism then that country may stop sending funds to terrorist groups. Another way to control funding is to freeze any and all bank accounts that are linked to a terrorist organization, and use that money to aid in counterterrorism operations or in the rebuilding of cities that may have been impacted by the organization in which the accounts are frozen. Certain tools are needed to help gather intelligence. Some of these tools may overlap into the counterterrorism realm, I. E. The use SOFT and the VA. One such tool is using humans to gather information or otherwise called HUMMING. HUMMING is primarily a strategic, long-term collection process geared award targets that are difficult to penetrate using technical means, like satellites and imagery intelligence” (Henley-Putnam Intelligence Management). Humans are an extremely valuable tool when it comes to gathering intelligence. The reason for this is that humans are able to read the emotions of others where a computer does not have this capability. Furthermore, satellite images/overhead views only show the outside of facilities and the actual intelligence may be on the inside. This is where humans would be needed to gain access to the facility.

As stated earlier, some tools ay overlap the use of the Navy Seals to gather human information within a facility is once such instance. Satellite and Imagery intelligence (SIGNING) is another tool available to intelligent professionals. This type of intelligence is actually using different technologies that are available to gather information. This can include but not limited to DOD and civilian satellites, 13-2 spy planes, and the I-JAVA. Spy planes and satellites take images from altitudes that normal aircraft cannot making these two products extremely important to the Intel gathering world.

These two cosmologies are extremely hard to be shot down and/or seen by the naked eye. The use of the I-JAVA overlaps in as a counterterrorism tool also, but can be used in gathering valuable intelligence. The I-JAVA usually flies at altitudes that most civilian/ military aircraft do, but do not have a pilot so if it is shot down, no lives are lost. However, if the I-JAVA is shot down the data is stored on board but the operator can remotely access and destroy any information. (Austin, 2010). The LEAK also gives the use of open source information (JOINT) in gathering intelligence is Just as important as HUMID and SIGNING information.

JOINT intelligence is information that is normally not classified. This information comes from social media, news programs, propaganda and other sources that are available to the public. The CIA actually has a division that is dedicated to JOINT gathering called The DIN Open Source Center, this center is responsible for translating intelligence in over 80 languages; source, trends, and media analyses; specialized video and geopolitical services; and rare cultural and subject matter expertise (INTelligence: Open Source Intelligence, 2010).

With the creation of social media websites like Faceable, Namespace, and Twitter personal information on individuals is readily available. This can be valuable when an analyst is trying to see how a known terrorist organization responds to a presidential address. Terrorism is an ever evolving phenomenon and how it is combated against is also evolving. The framework for the creation of “The Agency was covered throughout this document. From the history of the FBI, CIA, and DID to restructuring these agencies into one dominant intelligence agency would aid the United States in its overall fight against terrorism.

This restructuring completely removed the DID from the intelligence community and increased the capabilities of the other two by absorbing the DID within the other two agencies. Additionally, the way the CIA and FBI are utilized would be re-aligned allowing the CIA to operate within the United States. Furthermore, the use of SOFT, Save, and funding restraints as a counterterrorism tool was also discussed. Lastly counterintelligence tools for gathering HUMID, SIGNING, and SNIT information was addressed detailing how all three of these tools are important to the intelligence community and how some antiterrorism tools overlap into this arena.