Theories of Intelligence - Essay Example

For example, when someone can think quickly, It Is connected to fluid intelligence, which is similar to critical thinking, a person has the opacity to form concepts, think abstractly, and utilize knowledge to new circumstances. This paper is will discuss two deferent theories of intelligence from two different psychologists so that there can be an understanding of the different views in society. Gardener’s theory of intelligence The first Theory comes from Howard Gardner. His theory of multiple intelligences is quite popular and Is widely utilized.

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Gardner, who was Inspired by the writings of Jean Pigged has suggested a theory of multiple Intelligences. He Initially recognized even elements of intelligence (Gardner, 1983). He discusses that these intelligences are somewhat distinct from each other and that each person has a certain level of each of these seven intelligences. When a student enters University of Phoenix, there Is a class that is required and In this class, they Issue an assignment that the Individual takes to discover what type of learner they are. UT of the different types of styles there were Kinesthesia, which is more hands on; Interpersonal, which is the ability to sense others feelings and show empathy such as a psychologist; Interpersonal, which Is usually someone who Is self-assured and self-aware of themselves; Linguistic, which Is someone who can communicate clearly through verbal or written emotions; Logical-mathematical, which is someone who has the capacity to handle complicated logical arguments, this person would work well under most pressures; Musical, which is someone who utilizes his or her creativity and could learn. Reform, and compose musically; Naturalists are people who have the capacity to comprehend different species, identify patterns in nature, and categorize trial objects like a biologist would and last Spatial, which is the capacity to know where one’s self is relative to fixed locations such as navigators, the ability to accomplish tasks requiring three-dimensional visualization and placement of your hands or other parts of your body. Recently, Gardner has added an eighth intelligence to his list (Educational Leadership, 1997).

Sternberg theory of Intelligence According to the Oregon technology in education council (2010), Sternberg (1988, 1 997) focuses on Just three mall components: Practical Intelligence, which is the opacity to thrive in informal and formal educational settings; adjusting to and 1 OFF capacity to cope with unusual situations so they are easily handled in the future; critical thinking. Continental intelligence, which is the capacity to process information successfully. This includes anticompetitive, executive, performance, and knowledge-acquisition elements that help to direct cognitive processes. The Oregon Technology in Education Council, 2010) Intelligence testing According to Shirker, E. B. & Levy, D. A. (2010) Intelligence is inseparable from ignition, diversified processes by which the individual acquires and applies knowledge. (Shirker, E. B. & Levy, D. A. , 2010). It usually includes processes such as recognition, categorization, thinking, and memory. Altogether, cognitive development is neither totally culturally relative nor completely uniform everywhere. (Shirker, E. B. & Levy, D. A. , 2010) Today numerous assessments show variances in intelligence scores between large cultural groups.

For example, in the United States, Asian Americans tend to score the highest, followed by European Americans, Hispanics, and last African Americans. Therefore, typically, African American schoolchildren score 10-15 percent lower on a standardized intelligence test than white schoolchildren. (Shirker, E. B. & Levy, D. A. , 2010). The assessment of intelligence and cognition is in a fluid rather than crystallized state (Daniel, 1997). The recent appearance of numerous batteries, new and revised, has not seemed to interfere with the psychologists’ dependence on more outdated instruments.