Baran Ch 10

augmented reality (AR)
permits users to point phones at things in the real world and be instantly linked to Web sites containing information about those things superimposed over the screen image
binary code
information transformed into a series of digits 1 and 0 for storage and manipulation in computers
browsers
software programs loaded on personal computers and used to download and view Web files
censorware
unflattering name given to Web content-filtering software by its opponents
click stream
the series of choices made by a user on the Web
cloud computing
storage of all computer data, including personal information and system-operating soft ware, on distant computers
cookies
an identifying code added to a computer’s hard drive by a visited Web site
dataveillance
the massive electronic collection and distillation of consumer data
digital computer
a computer that processes data reduced to a binary code
digital divide
the lack of technological access among people of color, people who are poor or disabled, and those in rural communities
domain name
on the World Wide Web, an identifying name, rather than a site’s formal URL, that gives some indication of the nature of a site’s content or owner
e-mail
function of Internet allowing communication via computer with anyone else online, anyplace in the world, with no long-distance fees
encryption
electronic coding or masking of information on the Web that can be deciphered only by a recipient with the decrypting key
fair use
in copyright law, instances in which material may be used without permission or payment
flash mobs (smart mobs)
large, geographically dispersed groups connected only by communications technology, quickly drawn together to perform collective action
global village
a McLuhan concept; new communication technologies permit people to become increasingly involved in one another’s lives
home page
entryway into a Web site, containing information and hyperlinks to other material
hosts
computers linking individual personal computer users to the Internet
hyperlink
connection, embedded in Internet or Web site, allowing instant access to other material in that site as well as to material in other sites
information gap
the widening disparity in amounts and types of information available to information haves and have-nots
instant messaging (IM)
real-time e-mail, allowing two or more people to communicate instantaneously and in immediate response to one another
Internet
a global network of interconnected computers that communicate freely and share and exchange information
ISP (Internet service provider)
company that offers Internet connections at monthly rates depending on the kind and amount of access needed
mainframe computer
a large central computer to which users are connected by terminals
metering
Internet use charged “by the byte”; heavier users pay more, more-modest users pay less
minicomputer
a relatively large central computer to which users are connected by terminals; not as large as a mainframe computer
multimedia
advanced sound and image capabilities for microcomputers
operating system
the software that tells the computer how to work
opt-in/opt-out
consumers giving permission to companies to sell personal data, or consumers requesting that companies do not sell personal data
personal or microcomputer (PC)
a very small computer that uses a microprocessor to handle information (also called a personal computer or PC)
protocols
common communication rules and languages for computers linked to the Internet
radio frequency identification chip (RFIC)
grain-of-sand-sized microchip and antenna embedded in consumer products that transmit a radio signal
search engines
(sometimes called spiders, or Web crawlers) Webor Net-search software providing on-screen menus
spam
unsolicited commercial e-mail
spyware
identifying code placed on a computer by a Web site without permission or notification
technology gap
the widening disparity between communication technology haves and have-nots
terminals
user workstations that are connected to larger centralized computers
URL (uniform resource locator)
the designation of each file or directory on the host computer connected to the Internet
Usenet
also known as network news, an internationally distributed Internet bulletin board system
Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP)
phone calls transferred in digital packets over the Internet rather than on circuit-switched telephone wires
WAN (wide area network)
network that connects several LANs in different locations
World Wide Web
a tool that serves as a means of accessing files on computers connected via the Internet