Free Sample: Biotechnology paper example for writing essay

Biotechnology - Essay Example

Forensic or Identity testing, or example examination of semen for sexual offenders and analysis of blood, bone or hair for murder victims. During diagnostics scientist scan DNA for errors or mutations. Two Techniques are mainly used, the first involves the use of a short strand of DNA know as a “probe” to identify mutations and the second involves the use of genes and comparing it’s sequences to that of a healthy individual. Therapeutic Biotechnology Uses Biotechnology contributes to the treatment against disease In two ways. Gene therapy and pharmacopoeias.

Gene Therapy involves the treatment of disease by hanging the genetic message or instructions of body cells. There are three approaches to gene therapy; replace a faulty gene with a functional one, the ‘knocking out’ of a faulty gene and introducing a new gene into the body to fight disease. Therapeutic Cloning Is a procedure In which cells are taken from a patient and Inserted Into a fertilized egg whose nucleus has been removed. The resulting cell is stimulated to divide repeatedly to form a mass consisting of 100-200 cells.

Stem cells are then extracted from the blastoffs and used to grow tissues that are a reflect genetic match for the patient. The differentiated cells can potentially be transplanted into the patent to treat disorders such as diabetes, Alchemist’s disease, and Parkinson disease. Pharmacopoeias involves pharmacology which is the study of pharmaceuticals and how they react with a person’s specific genetic make- up. By knowing a person’s genetic makeup a doctor would be able to prescribe the right medication as well as the right dosage.

The risk of allergic reactions, side effects and over dosage will be minimal. Pharmacopoeias involves the identification of SNAPS. Biomedical Electronics- involves working closely with nurses, technicians, physicians and other hospital staff who use the wide range of electronic devices in modern medical practice. Bombs advise and assist the hospital staff with the safe operation of the technical equipment. These devices include things such as nerve stimulator, infusion pumps and electronic thermometers, CT and MR. imaging systems, surgical lasers, heart lung bypass machines, dialysis machines and many others.

Bioinformatics – is an applied science aiming to combine mechanical elements, electronics and parts of biological organisms. Bioinformatics includes aspects of biology, mechanics and electronics. It also encompasses the fields of robotics and neuroscience. The goal of these experiments is to make devices interact with human muscle, skeleton, and nervous systems. The end result is the devices will help with human motor control lost or impaired by trauma, disease or birth defects. Familiarization- is the application of electronics and measurement techniques to develop devices used in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

Computers are an essential part of familiarization, from the microprocessor in a single-purpose instrument used to do a variety of small tasks to the microcomputer needed to process the large amount of information in a medical imaging system. Bimetallism- include both living tissue and artificial materials used for implantation. Understanding the properties and behavior of living material is vital in the design of implant materials. The selection of an appropriate material to place in the human body may be one of the most difficult tasks faced by the biomedical engineer.

Certain metal alloys, ceramics, polymers, and composites have been used as implantable materials. Bimetallism must be non-toxic, non-carcinogenic, chemically inert, stable, and mechanically strong enough to withstand the repeated forces of a lifetime. Newer bimetallism even incorporate living cells in order to provide a true biological and mechanical match for the living tissue. Bohemianism- applies classical mechanics (static, dynamics, fluids, solids, thermodynamics, and continuum mechanics) to biological or medical problems.

It includes the study of motion, material deformation, flow within the body and in devices, and transport of chemical constituents across biological and synthetic media and membranes. Progress in bohemianism has led to the development of the artificial heart and heart valves, artificial Joint replacements, as well as a better understanding of the function of the heart and lung, blood vessels and capillaries, and bone, cartilage, interlibrary discs, ligaments and tendons of the musculoskeletal systems.

Examples of Biomedical Engineering Projects Artificial organs – hearing aids, cardiac pacemakers, artificial kidneys and hearts, blood oxygenation, synthetic blood vessels, Joints, arms, and legs. Automated patient monitoring – during surgery or in intensive care, healthy persons in unusual environments, such as astronauts in space or underwater divers at great depth. Blood chemistry sensors – potassium, sodium, 02, CA, and PH. Advanced therapeutic and surgical devices – laser system for eye surgery, automated delivery of making- computer-based systems for diagnosing diseases.

Design of optimal clinical laboratories- computerized analyses for blood samples, cardiac categorization laboratory. Medical imaging systems- ultrasound, computer assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography. AGRICULTURAL USES Agricultural biotechnology is a collection of scientific techniques used to improve lands, animals and microorganisms. Based on an understanding of DNA, scientists have developed solutions to increase agricultural productivity.

Starting from the ability to identify genes that may include advantages on certain crops, and the ability to work with such characteristics very precisely, biotechnology enhances breeders’ ability to make improvements in crops and livestock. Biotechnology enables improvements that are not possible with traditional crossing of related species alone. Genetic engineering: Scientists have learned how to move genes from one organism to another. This has been called genetic modification, genetic engineering or genetic improvement.

Regardless of the name, the process allows the transfer of useful characteristics (such as resistance to a disease) into a plant, animal or microorganism by inserting genes (DNA) from another organism. Virtually all crops improved with transferred DNA (often called GM crops or Smog) to date have been developed to aid farmers to increase productivity by reducing crop damage from weeds, diseases or insects. Molecular markers: Traditional breeding involves selection of individual plants or animals based on visible or measurable traits.

Free Sample: Biotechnology paper example for writing essay

Biotechnology - Essay Example

During cloning an extra GET, which encodes for a valise residue in the proteins’ primary structures, was inserted immediately prior to each stop code. As a universal stop code ATA was used, replacing other stop codes if present. This was mainly done to gain maximum flexibility during cloning as the Flexi vector system enables the direct transfer to other vectors with different tags. A GET is mandatory to later transfer the gene of interest to a vector encoding a C-terminal tag. He correct expression of the encoded fusion proteins was assessed by SD-Page.

Analyzing the gel under fluorescent conditions reveals protein bands which have the [email protected] aligned attached. The Passenger Plus preplanned Protein ladder possesses two fluorescent bands, at 25 and 70 kid respectively. [email protected] Standard Protein with a size of 60 kid was also analyzed and helps as an additional size reference. The [email protected] features a size of 34 kid alone. Agrees gel of PC products after amplification of Comparable jejune genes from genomic DNA. The band sizes match the respective length of each gene.

Refer to Table 2 for expected gene lengths. As markers Hyper Ladder I (M) and II (MM) were used both most of the fusion proteins investigated fall into a range between 61 ND 73 kid, namely Haloing fused to arc (73 kid), pyre (72 kid), esp. (71 kid), gap (70 kid), (65 kid), pebble (62 kid), hiss (62 kid) and flag (61 kid). Outside of this size range, only Haloing-flag (93 kid) and the small [email protected] (52 kid) are found. For each protein, bands with the correct size could be detected, see Figure Figurer. 4.

Additionally, bands of smaller size are visible (34 kid) which might be due to untimely termination of translation, potentially comprising only the Haloing(D, which features the corresponding size. He municipality of the immobilizers proteins was assessed using polygonal antibodies raised against whole and partially lased attenuated cells of Comparable jejune. Secondary antibodies conjugated with a fluoroscope were used to detect signals. Rather verification of the results was performed by using a standard western blot experiment to test for municipality.

Figure Figure shows the results of the investigated proteins after purification with Haloing”; magnetic beads was performed prior to SD-PAGE and blotting. Only two of the Investigated Monogenic proteins (ca, and halls) show strong visible bands In western blot matching the expected sizes. The three remaining Monogenic proteins, pee la, flag and pal, cannot be distinguished in western blot analysis as well as all the other proteins. Which showed clear positive signals for ca and his], a rather weak signal for pebble and extremely low signals for flag and pal. N contrast, Figure Figurative shows a western blot performed directly with whole lactates after recombinant expression without further purification. At least four bands are visible in all the samples with the most prominent band at 70 kid. Bands of lower intensity appear at approximately 55 kid, 28 kid and 18 kid. The first five lanes, corresponding to the known monogenic proteins, ca, his], pebble, flag and pal, show bands of higher intensity than the remaining five lanes.

However, as the investigated fusion proteins fall either into the 70 kid or in case of HTH-pal into the 55 kid range, a clear differentiation between positive bands and background caused by KERR cross-reactive proteins is hardly possible. Erectly analyzing the whole lactates by western blot failed to discriminate between positive bands and background as the whole lactates of KERR cells clearly show cross- reactive signals with the used polygonal antibody.

However, as these bands bear similar sizes as the investigated fusion proteins, a secure identification of true positives is difficult at best using standard western blot without previous purification methods. Even then identification of municipality is sometimes difficult at best as sensitivity might be low due to differences in expression rate and losses of protein content during purification. Still, the signal intensities of the five monogenic proteins were well represented by all three methods he [email protected] a derivative of a Theologians – is fused during expression to the N-terminus of our protein of interest.

The expression of the fusion proteins is under control oft RNA Polymerase. Additionally, an noncompliance cassette is present to allow for antibiotic selection. Second, with commonly used BLOB(DEE) expression cells, induction is realized by spoilsport ;-D-1-disproportionately (PIPIT). However, the PIPIT-induced expression oft RNA Polymerase in BLOB(DEE) is not tightly regulated, I. E. The promoter is leaky, causing a basal expression even if cells are not induced.

This is a major problem especially if toxic substances are to be expressed [27]. In our method, we used KERR cells to counter this problem. These cells are under regulation of L-Ramose and induction can completely be turned off by addition of glucose to the medium during growth. In fact, for the proteins investigated, expression has failed in BLOB(Dee) for all but two proteins (data not shown), whereas KERR cells were able to express all the proteins with satisfying yields as we showed by SD-PAGE.

Free Sample: Biotechnology paper example for writing essay

Biotechnology - Essay Example

But recent developments n molecular biology have given biotechnology new meaning, new prominence, and new potential. It Is (modern) biotechnology that has captured the attention of the public. Modern biotechnology can have a dramatic effect on the world economy and society (3). One example of modern biotechnology is genetic engineering. Genetic engineering is the process of transferring individual genes between organisms or modifying the genes In an organism to remove or add a desired trait or characteristic. Examples of genetic engineering are described later In this document.

Through genetic engineering, genetically modified crops or organisms are formed. These GM crops or Smog are used to produce biotech-derived foods. It is this specific type of modern biotechnology, genetic engineering, that seems to generate the most attention and concern by consumers and consumer groups. What Is interesting is that modern biotechnology is far more precise than traditional forms of biotechnology and so is viewed by some as being far safer. ) How does modern biotechnology work? All organisms are made up of cells that are programmed by the same basic genetic material, called DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Each unit of DNA is made up off ambition of the following nucleotides adenine (A), guanine (G), thymine (T), and cytosine (D) as well as a sugar and a phosphate. These nucleotides pair up Into strands that twist together into a spiral structure call a “double helix. ” This double helix is DNA Segments of the DNA tell individual cells how to produce specific proteins. These segments are genes. It is the presence or absence of the specific protein that gives an organism a trait or characteristic. More than 10,000 different genes are found In most plant and animal species.

This total set of genes for an organism is organized into chromosomes within the cell nucleus. The process by which a multicultural organism develops from a single cell through an embryo stage into an adult is ultimately controlled by the genetic information of the cell, as well as Interaction of genes and gene products with environmental factors. (5). When cells reproduce, the DNA strands of the double helix separate. Because nucleotide A always pairs with T and G always pairs with C, each DNA strand serves as a precise blueprint for a specific protein.

Except for mutations or mistakes In the replication process, a single cell Is equipped with the Information to replicate Into millions of identical cells. Because all organisms are made up of the same type of remove DNA segments from one organism and recombine it with DNA in another organism. This is called recombinant DNA (radar) technology, and it is one of the basic tools of modern biotechnology (6). radar technology is the laboratory manipulation of DNA in which DNA, or fragments of DNA from different sources, are cut and recombined using enzymes. This recombinant DNA is then inserted into a living organism. DNA technology is usually used synonymously with genetic engineering. radar technology allows researchers to move genetic information teen unrelated organisms to produce desired products or characteristics or to eliminate undesirable characteristics. Genetic engineering is the technique of removing, modifying or adding genes to a DNA molecule in order to change the information it contains. By changing this information, genetic engineering changes the type or amount of proteins an organism is capable of producing. Genetic engineering is used in the production of drugs, human gene therapy, and the development of improved plants (2).

For example, an “insect protection” gene (Bet) has been inserted into several crops – corn, ton, and potatoes – to give farmers new tools for integrated pest management. Bet corn is resistant to European corn borer. This inherent resistance thus reduces a farmers pesticide use for controlling European corn borer, and in turn requires less chemicals and potentially provides higher yielding Agricultural Biotechnology. Although major genetic improvements have been made in crops, progress in conventional breeding programs has been slow.

In fact, most crops grown in the US produce less than their full genetic potential. These shortfalls in yield are due to the inability of crops to tolerate or adapt to environmental stresses, pests, and diseases. For example, some of the world’s highest yields of potatoes are in Idaho under irrigation, but in 1993 both quality and yield were severely reduced because of cold, wet weather and widespread frost damage during June. Some of the world’s best bread wheat and malting barley’s are produced in the north-central states, but in 1993 the disease Fauvism caused an estimated $1 billion in damage.

Scientists have the ability to insert genes that give biological defense against diseases and insects, thus reducing the need for chemical pesticides, and they will non be able to convey genetic traits that enable crops to better withstand harsh conditions, such as drought (8). The International Laboratory for Tropical Agricultural Biotechnology (IL TAB) is developing transformation techniques and applications for control of diseases caused by plant viruses in tropical plants such as rice, cassava and tomato.

In 1995, IL TAB reported the first transfer through biotechnology of a resistance gene from a wild species of rice to a susceptible cultivated rice variety. The transferred gene expressed resistance to Assonants rosary, a bacterium which can destroy the crop through disease. The resistant gene was transferred into susceptible rice varieties that are cultivated on more than 24 million hectares around the world (9). Reduce the need for chemical pesticide use.

Insect-protected crops allow for less potential exposure of farmers and groundwater to chemical residues, while providing farmers with season-long control. Also by reducing the need for pest control, impacts and resources spent on the land are less, thereby preserving the topsoil (10). Major advances also have been made through conventional breeding and selection f livestock, but significant gains can still be made by using biotechnology (23). Currently, farmers in the U. S spend $17 billion dollars on animal health. Diseases such as hog cholera and pests such as screwworm have been eradicated.

Uses of biotechnology in animal production include development of vaccines to protect animals from disease, production of several calves from one embryo (cloning), increase of animal growth rate, and rapid disease detection (7). Modern biotechnology has offered opportunities to produce more nutritious and better tasting foods, higher crop yields and plants that are naturally protected from eases and insects. Modern biotechnology allows for the transfer of only one or a few desirable genes, thereby permitting scientists to develop crops with specific beneficial traits and reduce undesirable traits (10).

Traditional biotechnology such as cross-pollination in corn produces numerous, non-selective changes. Genetic modifications have produced fruits that can ripen on the vine for better taste, yet have longer shelf lives through delayed pectin degradation (7). Tomatoes and other produce containing increased levels of certain nutrients, such as vitamin C, vitamin E, ND or beta carotene, and help protect against the risk of chronic diseases, such as some cancers and heart disease. (10).

Similarly introducing genes that increase available iron levels in rice three-fold is a potential remedy for iron deficiency, a condition that effects more than two billion people and causes anemia in about half that number (19). Most of the today’s hard cheese products are made with a biotech enzyme called chinos. This is produced by genetically engineered bacteria which is considered more purer and plentiful than it’s naturally occurring counterpart, net, which is derived from calf stomach tissue. In 1992, Monsanto Company successfully inserted a gene from a bacterium into the Russet Burbank potato.

This gene increases the starch content of the potato. Higher starch content reduces oil absorption during frying, thereby lowering the cost of processing French fries and chips and reducing the fat content in the finished product. This product is still awaiting final development and approval. Modern biotechnology offers effective techniques to address food safety concerns. Botanical methods may be used to decrease the time necessary to detect debtor pathogens, toxins, and chemical contaminants, as well as to increase detection sensitivity.

Enzymes, antibodies, and microorganisms produced using radar techniques are being used to monitor food production and processing systems for quality control (7). Discoveries into applications. This is done by controlling which genes are altered in an organized fashion. For example, a known gene sequence from a corn plant can be altered to improve yield, increase drought tolerance, and produce insect resistance (Bet) in one generation. Conventional breeding techniques would take several years.

Conventional breeding techniques would require that a field of corn is grown and each trait is selected from individual stalks of corn. The ears of corn from selected stalks with each desired trait (e. G, drought tolerance and yield performance) would then be grown and combined (cross-pollinated). Their offspring (hybrid) would be further selected for the desired result (a high performing corn with drought tolerance). With improved technology and knowledge about agricultural organisms, processes, and ecosystems, opportunities will emerge to produce new and improved agricultural products in an environmentally sound manner.