Ch 10-12

Human resource management (HRM)
the process of finding, developing, and keeping the right people to form a qualified work force
Bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ)
an expectation in employment law that permits sex, age, religion, and the like to be used when making employment decisions, but only if they are “reasonably necessary to the normal operation of that particular business.” BFOQs are strictly monitored by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Disparate treatment
international discrimination that occurs when people are purposely not given the same hiring, promotion, or membership opportunities because of their race, color, sex, age, ethnic group, national origin, or religious beliefs
Adverse impact
unintentional discrimination that occurs when members of a particular race, sex, or ethnic group are unintentionally harmed or disadvantaged because they are hired, promoted, or trained (or any other employment decision) at substantially lower rates than others
Four-fifths (or 80 percent) rule
a rule of thumb used by the courts and the EEOC to determine whether there is evidence of adverse impact. A violation of this rule occurs when the selection rate for a protected group is less than 80 percent, of four-fifths, of the selection rate for a nonprotected group
Sexual harassment
a form of discrimination in which unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, or other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature occurs while performing one’s job
Quid pro quo sexual harassment
a form of sexual harassment in which employment outcomes, such as hiring, promotion, or simply keeping one’s job, depend on whether an individual submits to sexual harassment
Hostile work environment
a form of sexual harassment in which unwelcome and demeaning sexually related behavior creates an intimidating and offering work environment
Recruiting
the process of developing a pool of qualified job applicants
Job analysis
a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job
Job discrimination
a written description of the basic tasks, duties, and responsibilities required of an employee holding a particular job
Job specifications
a written summary of the qualifications needed to successfully perform a particular job
Internal recruiting
the process of developing a pool of qualified job applicants for people who already work in the company
External reciting
the process of developing a pool of qualified job applicants form outside the company
Job positioning is a
procedure for advertising job openings within the company to existing employees
A career path is a
planned sequence of jobs through which employees may advance within an organization
Selection
the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job
Validation
the process of determining how well a selection test or procedure predicts future job performance. The better or more accurate the prediction of future job performance, the more valid a test is said to be
Human resource information systems (HRIS)
a computerized system for gathering, analysis, storing, and disseminating information related to the HRM process
Employment references
sources such as previous employers or coworkers who can provide job-related information about job candidates
Background checks
procedures used to verify the truthfulness and accuracy of information that applicants provide about themselves and to uncover negative, job-related background information not provided by applicants
Specific ability tests (aptitude tests)
test that measure the extent to which an applicant possesses the particular kind of ability needed to do a job
Cognitive ability tests
tests that measure the extent to which applicants have abilities in perceptual speed, verbal comprehension, numerical aptitude, general reasoning, and spatial aptitude
Biographical data (bio-data)
extensive surveys that ask applicants questions about their personal backgrounds and life experiences
Work sample tests
tests that require applicants to perform tasks that are actually done on the job
Assessment centers
a series of managerial simulations, graded by trained observers, that are used to determine applicants’ capability for managerial work
An in-basket exercise is a
paper-and-pencil test in which an applicant is given a manager’s in-basket containing memos, phone messages, organizational policies, and other communications normally received by and available to managers
In a leadership group discussion, another common assessment center exercise, a
group of six applicants is given approximately two hours to solve a problem, but no one is put in charge
Interview
a selection tool in which company representatives ask job applicants job-related questions to determine whether they are qualified for the job
Unstructured interviews
interviews in which interviewers are free to ask the applicants anything they want
Structured interviews
interviews in which all applicants are asked the same set of standardized questions, usually including situational, behavioral, background, and job-knowledge questions
Training
developing the skills, experience, and knowledge employees need to perform their jobs or improve their performance
Needs assessment
the process of identifying and prioritizing the learning needs of employees
Training should never be conducted without first
performing a need assessment
Training can be evaluated in four ways
Reactions, Learning, Behavior, results
Performance appraisal
the process of assessing how well employment are doing their jobs
Central tendency error occurs when
assessors rate all workers as average or in the middle of the scale
Halo error occurs when
assessors rate all workers as performing at the same level in all parts of their jobs
Leniency error occurs when
assessors rate all workers as performing particularly well
Objective performance measures
measures of job performance that are easily and directly counted or quantified
Subjective performance measures
measures of job performance that require someone to judge or asses worker’s performance
Behavior observation scales (BOSs)
rating scales that frequency with which workers perform specific behaviors that are representative of the job dimensions critical to successful job performance
Rater training
training performance appraisal raters in how to avoid rating errors and increase rating accuracy
360-degree feedback
a performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers and coworkers, and the employees themselves
Compensation
the financial and nonfinancial rewards that organizations give employees in exchange for their work
Employee separation
the voluntary or involuntary loss of an employee
Job evaluation
a process that determines the worth of each job in a company by evaluating the market value of the knowledge, skills, and requirements needed to perform it
Piecework
a compensation system in which employees are paid a set rate for each item they produce
Commission
a compensation system in which employees earn a percentage of each sale they make
Profit sharing
a compensation system in which a company pays a percentage of its profits to employees in addition to their regular compensation
Employee stock ownership plan (ESOP)
a compensation system that awards employees shares of company stock in addition to their regular compensation
Stock options
a compensation system that gives employees the right to purchase shares of stock at a set price, even if the value of the stock increases above that price
Wrongful discharge
a legal doctrine that requires employers to have a job-related reason to terminate employees
Downsizing
the planning elimination of jobs in a company
Outplacement services
employment-counseling services offered to employees who are losing their jobs because of downsizing
Early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs)
programs that offer financial benefits to employees to encourage them to retire early
Phased retirement
employees transition to retirement by working reduced hours over a period of time before completely retiring
Employee turnover
loss of employees who voluntarily choose to leave the company
Functional turnover
loo of poor-performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave a company
Dysfunctional turnover
loss of high-performing employees who voluntarily choose to leave a company
Which of the following statements about federal employment law is true?
The intent of anti-discrimination law is to make factors such as gender, race, or age irrelevant in employment decisions.
The fact that a 98-pound job candidate is not hired as a dock worker to move 60-pound boxes of produce is legal as a result of ____.
bona fide occupational qualifications (BFOQs)
A ____ is a purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job
job analysis
Bona fide occupational qualifications would be most likely included in a(n) ____.
job specification
Before beginning to recruit, organizations must ____.
conduct a job analysis
Which of the following is an external recruiting method?
advertising
Which of the following statements about Internet recruiting is true?
The Internet allows companies to quickly reach large numbers of people.
____ is the process of gathering information about job applicants to decide who should be offered a job.
Selection
____ are procedures used to verify the truthfulness and accuracy of information that applicants provide about themselves and to uncover negative, job-related background information not provided by applicants.
Background checks
Which of the following questions is deemed acceptable (i.e., “legal”) for employers to ask applicants during the selection process?
Have you ever been convicted of a crime?
According to the text, if an employer were to use only one type of selection test, ____ would be the one to use.
cognitive ability tests
____ interviewing typically leads to much more accurate hiring decisions (i.e., correctly predicting which job applicants will perform better, and therefore should be hired).
Structured
A ____ is a performance appraisal process in which feedback is obtained from the boss, subordinates, peers, and co-workers as well as the employees themselves. –
360-degree feedback
The term ____ refers to both the financial and nonfinancial rewards organizations give employees in exchange for their work.
compensation
Which of the following is NOT an example of a pay-variability decision used to motivate employee performance?
hierarchical pay
An ESOP is an ____.
employee stock ownership plan
Sharron Grant-Burton was a marketing director for Covenant Care, owner of skilled-nursing and assisted-living facilities. During a discussion of the fairness of the company’s bonus structure with other marketing directors, Grant-Burton said she did not receive a bonus because her executive director “did not believe in them.” Several days later, Grant-Burton was fired and told she had been terminated for a number of unspecified reasons, including her comments about bonuses. This is an example of a ____.
wrongful discharge
Work Team
A small number of people with complementary skills who hold themselves mutually accountable for pursuing a common purpose, achieving performance goals and improving interdependent work processes.
The Advantages of Teams
Teams can improve customer satisfaction, product and service quality, employee job satisfaction, and decision making.
The Disadvantages of Teams
Teams can be prone to high turnover, social loafing, groupthink, and minority domination.
Cross-training
Training team members to do all r most of the jobs performed by the other team members.
Social Loafing
Behavior in which team members withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work.
When to use teams
Teams should be used when there is a clear, engaging reason or purpose; when the job can’t be done unless people work together; when rewards can be provided for teamwork and team performance; when ample resources are available; and when they will have clear authority to manage and change how work gets done.
When to not use teams
Teams should not be used when there isn’t a clear, engaging reason or purpose; when the job can be done by people working independently; when rewards are provided for individual effort and performance; when the necessary resources are not available; and when management will continue to monitor or influence how work gets done.
Traditional Work Group
A group composed of two or more people who work together to achieve a shared goal.
Employee Involvement Team
A team that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues.
Semi-Autonomous Work Group
A group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service.
Self-Managing Team
A team that manages and controls all of the major tasks of producing a product or service.
Self-Designing Team
A team that has the characteristics of self-managing teams but also controls team design, work tasks and team membership.
Cross-Functional Team
A team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization.
Virtual Team
A team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed co-workers who use telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task.
Project Team
A team created to complete specific, one-time projects or tasks within a limited time.
Norms
Informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior.
Cohesiveness
The extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain in it.
The optimum size for a team
6-9 members.
Forming
The first stage of team development, in which team members meet each other, form initial impressions, and begin to establish team norms.
Storming
The second stage of development, characterized by conflict and disagreement, in which team members disagree over what the team should do and how it should do it.
Norming
The third stage of development, in which team members begin to settle into their roles, group cohesion grows and positive team norms develop.
Performing
The fourth and final stage of development, in which performance improves because the team has matured into an effective, fully functioning team.
Structural Accommodation
The ability to change organizational structures, policies and practices in order to meet stretch goals.
Bureaucratic Immunity
The ability to make changes without first getting approval from managers or other parts of an organization.
Individiualism-Collectivism
The degree to which a person believes that people should be self-sufficient and that loyalty to one’s self is more important than loyalty to team or company.
Team Level
The average level of ability, experience, personality, or any other factor on a team.
Team Diversity
The variances or differences in ability, experience, personality, or any other factor on a team.
Interpersonal Skills
Skills, such as listening, communicating, questioning and providing feedback, that enable people to have effective working relationships with others.
Skill-based pay
A compensation system that pays employees for learning additional skills or knowledge.
Gainsharing
A compensation system in which companies share the financial value of performance gains, such as productivity, cost savings, or quality, with their workers.
Human Resource Management (HRM)
Process of determining human resource needs and then recruiting, selecting, developing, motivating, evaluating, compensating, and scheduling employees to achieve organizational goals
Affirmative action
employment activities designed to “right past wrongs” by increasing opportunities for minorities and women
Reverse discrimination
Discrimination against whites or males in hiring or promoting
Job analysis
study of what employees do who hold various job titles
Job Description
A summary of the objectives of a job, type of job, responsibilities, working conditions, and relationship of the job to other functions
Job specifications
Written summary of the minimum qualifications required of workers to do a particular job
Recruitment
Set of activities used to obtain a sufficient number of the right employees at the right time
selection
Process of gathering information and deciding who be hired, under legal guidelines, to serve the best interests of the individual and the organization
Contingent Worker
Employees that include part-time workers, temporary workers, seasonal workers, independent contractors, interns, and co-op students
Training and development
All attempts to improve productivity by increasing an employee’s ability to perform.
Orientation
Activity that introduces new employees to the organization
On-the-job training
Training at the workplace that lets the employee learn by doing or by watching others for a while and then imitating them
Off-the-job training
Internal or external training programs away from workplace that develop any of a variety of skills or foster personal development
Online training
Training programs in which employees complete classes via the internet
Vestibule training
Training done in schools where employees are taught on equipment similar to that used on the job
Job Simulation
Use of equipment that duplicates job conditions and tasks so trainees can learn skills before attempting them on the job
Management Development
Process of training and educating employees to become good managers, and then monitoring the progress of their managerial skills over time
Networking
Process of establishing and maintaining contacts with key managers in and outside the organization and using those contacts to weave strong relationships that serve as informal development systems
Mentor
An experienced employee who supervises, coaches, and guides lower-level employees by introducing them to the right people and generally being their organizational sponsor
Performance Appraisal
Evaluation that measures employee performance against established standards in order to make decisions about promotions, compensation, training or termination
Fringe benefits
Benefits such as sick-leave pay, vacation pay, pension plans and health plans that represent additional compensation beyond base wages
Cafeteria-style fringe benefits
Fringe benefits plan that allows employees to choose the benefits they want up to a certain dollar amount
Flextime plan
Work schedule that gives employees some freedom to choose when to work, as long as they work the required number of hours
Core time
In a flextime plan, the period when all employees are expected to be at their job stations
Compressed workweek
Work schedule that allows employees to work a full number of hours per week but in fewer days
Job sharing
Arrangement whereby two part-time employees share one full-time job
the advantages of teams – teams improve…
-customer satisfaction
-product and service quality
-product development speed end efficiency
-employee job satisfaction
+cross-training
-decision making
the disadvantages of teams
-initially high turnover
-social loafing
-groupthink
-minority domination
factors that encourage people to withhold effort in teams
-the presence of someone w/ expertise
-the presentation of a compelling argument
-lacking confidence in one’s ability to contribute
-an unimportant or meaningless decision
-a dysfunctional decision-making climate
autonomy
the degree to which workers have the discretion, freedom, and independence to decide how and when to accomplish their jobs
cross-functional teams
a team composed of employees from different functional areas of the organization
virtual teams
a team composed of geographically and/or organizationally dispersed coworkers who use telecommunications and information technologies to accomplish an organizational task
project teams
a team created to complete a specific, one-time tasks within a limited time
social loafing
behavior in which team members withhold their efforts and fail to perform their share of the work
cross-training
training team members to do all or most of the jobs performed by the other team members
traditional work group
a group composed of two of more people who work together to achieve
employee involvement team
a team that provides advice or makes suggestions to management concerning specific issues
semi-autonomous work group
a group that has the authority to make decisions and solve problems related to the major tasks of producing a product or service
self-managing team
a team that manages and controls all of the major tasks of producing a product or service
self-designing team
a team that has the characteristics of self-managing teams but also controls team design, work tasks, and team membership
team norms
informally agreed-on standards that regulate team behavior
team cohesiveness
the extent to which team members are attracted to a team and motivated to remain in it
team size (large)
in very large teams, members find it difficult to get to know one another, and team can splinter into subgroups
team size (small)
very small groups may lack diversity and knowledge found in large teams
team size (just right)
for most teams, the right size is between 6 to 9 people
cognitive conflict (good)
members disagree because of different experiences and expertise
affective conflict
results in hostility, anger, resentment, distrust, cynicism, apathy
stretch goals
extremely ambitious goals that workers don’t know how to reach
individualists
put their own welfare and interests first
collectivists
put group interests ahead of self
team level
the average level of ability, experience, personality, or any other factor on a team
team diversity
variances or differences in ability, personality, or any other factor on a team
skill-based pay
pay employees for learning additional skills or knowledge
gainsharing
companies share the financial value of performance gains w/ their workers
nonfinancial rewards
vacations, t-shirts, awards, certificates