ch. 15 psychological therapies

action therapies
therapies in which the main goal is to change disordered or inappropriate behavior directly.
antianxiety drugs
drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers.
antidepressant drugs
drugs drugs used to treat drepression and anxiety
antipsychotic drugs
drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior
arbitrary inference
distortion of thinking in which a person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence
authenticity
the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client
aversion therapy
form of behavioral therapy in which an undersirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the behavior
behavior modification or applied behavior analysis
the use of learning techniques to modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
behavior therapies
action therapies based on the principles of classical and operant conditioning and aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior
bilateral cingulotomy
surgical technique that destroys part of the cingulate gyrus. used to treat obsessive compulsive disorder, depression, and chronic pain
biomedical ECT
electroconvulsive therapy where the electrodes are placed on both sides of the head and forehead
biomedical therapy
therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms
carl rogers
1902-1987. humanist psychologist who focused on the role of the self-concept and positive regard on personality development
cognitive behavioral therapy (cbt)
action therapy in which the goal is to help clients overcome problems by learning to think more rationally and logically
cognitive therapy
therapy in which the focus is on helping clients recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts
contingency contract
a formal, written agreement between the therapist and client (or teacher and student; parent and child) in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated
counter-conditioning
replacing an old conditioned response with a new one by changing the unconditioned stimulus
cybertherapy
psychotherapy that is offered on the internet. also called online, internet, or web therapy or counseling
directive
therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a clients statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions
dream interpretation
the analysis of the elements within a patients reported dream as a means of revealing unconscious conflicts and desires
eclectic therapies
therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques
electroconvulsive therapy (ect)
form of biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person’s head and running an electric current through the electrodes that is strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion
empathy
the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client
extinction techniques
the removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of behavior
eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (emdr)
controversial form of therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder and similar anxiety problems in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory
family counseling
a form of group therapy in which family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family
flooding
technique for treating phobias and other stress disorders in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response
free association
freudian technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations
fritz perls
1893-1970. developed and popularized gestalt therapy
gestalt therapy
form of directive insight therapy in which the therapist helps the client to accept all parts of his or her feelings and subjective experiences, using leading questions and planned experiences such as role-playing
group therapy
type of therapy in which a group of clients meet together with a therapist
humanistic therapy
psychotherapy focused on conscious, subjective experiences of emotion and people’s sense of self
insight therapies
therapies in which the main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their behavior, thoughts and feelings
latent content
the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams
magnification and minimization
distortions of thinking in which a person blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization)
manifest content
the actual content of one’s dream
modeling
learning through the observation and imitation of others
nondirective
therapy in which the therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions with regard to the client, instead remaining a calm, nonjudging listener while the client talks
overgeneralization
distortion of thinking in which a person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original
participant modeling
technique in which a model demonstrates the desired behavior in a step by step, gradual process while the client is encouraged to imitate the model
personalizaton
distortion of thinking in which a person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person
person-centered therapy
a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of carl rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens
prefrontal lobotomy
psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions are severed
psychoanalysis
an insight therapy based on the theory of freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts
psychodynamic therapy
a newer and more general term for therapies based on psychoanalysis, with an emphasis on transference, shorter treatment times and a more direct therapeutic approach
psychopharmacology
the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders
psychosurgery
surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders
psychotherapy
therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional
rational-emotive behavioral therapy (rebt)
cognitive-behavioral therapy in which clients are directly challenged in their irrational beliefs and helped to restructure their thinking into more rational belief statements
reinforcement
the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus
resistance
occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent
selective thinking
distortion of thinking in which a person focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects
self-help groups (support groups)
a group composed of people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support
sigmund freud
1856-1939. founder of the psychoanalytic school of thought which focuses on the role of the unconscious on behavior
systematic desensitization
behavior technique used to treat phobias, in which a client is asked to make a list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears
therapeutic alliance
the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect and understanding
therapy
treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively
time-out
an extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement for undesirable behavior, usually by being placed in a quiet corner or room away from possible attention and reinforcement opportunities
token economy
the use of objects called tokens to reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges.
transference
in psychoanalysis, the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist
unconditional positive regard
referring to the warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client-centered therapy
unilateral ECT
electroconvulsive therapy where the electrodes are placed on only one side of the head and the forehead