Ch. 2

Absolute Hyperlink
a hyperlink to another document on a different Internet computer that could be across the country or across the world.
Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)
set of rules that governs the use of school and school district computers, networks, and the Internet by teachers, administrators, staff, and students.
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
Department of Defense agency that developed a networking project that the Internet has roots in, called ARPANET.
analog signal
A continuous electrical wave.
animated GIF
popular type of animation where a group of several images are combined into a single GIF file.
animation
multimedia element that creates the appearance of motion by displaying a series of still images in rapid sequence or a graphic that has the illusion of motion if played back at the proper framing rate.
anonymous FTP
ability for anyone accessing an FTP site to transfer some, if not all, available files.
ARPANET
networking project that the Internet has roots in, developed by the Department of Defense, which effectively linked together scientific and academic researchers in the United States.
article
measure of how fast data travels over transmission channels.
audio
digitized music, speech, or any other sound that is stored and produced by a computer.
backbone
measure of how fast data travels over transmission channels.
bandwidth
measure of how fast data travels over transmission channels.
blog
short for Weblog, an informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order.
bookmark
method of keeping track of Web pages that have been viewed; records the Web page title and URL, on a computer for use in future Web sessions. Also called favorites.
broadband
technologies that transmit signals at much faster speeds than traditional network configurations.
browser
program that interprets HTML and displays Web pages and enables user to link to other Web pages and Web sites. Also called Web browser.
cable modem
high-speed modem that uses broadband technology to send and receive data over the cable television network.
Cascading Style Sheet
a simple mechanism for adding style (e.g. fonts, colors, spacing) to Web documents and defines style and formatting properties which are applied to HTML and/or XML-based Web pages.
chat
real-time typed conversation that takes place on a computer.
chat client
program on computer that allows connection to a chat server
chat room
communications medium, or channel, that permits users to chat with each other.
communications
process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information; sometimes called telecommunications.
communications channel
path that data follows as the data is transmitted from the sending equipment to the receiving equipment in a communications system.
communications protocol
rules that define how devices connect to each other and transmit data over a network.
communications software
programs that manage the transmission of data between computers.
dial-up access
connection to the Internet using a computer and a modem to dial into an ISP or online service over regular telephone lines.
digital signal
individual electrical pulses that a computer uses to represent data.
digital subscriber line (DSL)
high-speed alternative to a modem that uses broadband technology to transmit data on existing standard telephone lines.
discovery learning
inquiry-based, nonlinear method of learning and teaching that involves branching off and investigating related topics as they are encountered.
domain name
text version of a computer address.
download
process of copying files to your computer.
dynamic Web page
visitors customize some or all of the viewed content, such as stock quotes, weather for a region, or ticket availability for flights; visitors see content unique to their settings.
e-mail address
combination of a user name and a domain name that identifies a user so he or she can receive messages.
e-mail program
program used to create, send, receive, forward, store, print, and delete e-mail messages.
electronic mail (e-mail)
electronic exchange of messages and files to and from other computer users via a computer network.
emoticon
a keyboard character used in combination with text or other emoticons to express emotion.
ePALS
project designed to enable students to develop an understanding of different cultures through student e-mail exchanges.
facebook
an online application that provides a way for college students to meet and chat.
FAQ
answers to frequently asked questions contained in many Web pages and newsgroups.
favorite
bookmark list stored on a computer.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
internet standard that allows the exchange of files with other computers on the Internet.
filtering software
program that allows parents, teachers, and others to block access to certain materials on the Internet.
firewall
general term that refers to both hardware and software used to restrict access to data on a network.
flame
an abusive or insulting message sent on the Internet.
flame war
an exchanges of flames.
FTP server
computer that allows users to upload and download files using FTP.
FTP site
collection of files on an FTP server including text, graphics, audio, video, and program files.
graphic
a digital representation of nontext information, such as images, drawings, charts, pictures, photographs, animations, illustrations, and other images added to enhance Web pages and are essential for digital media applications.
graphical image
a digital representation of nontext information, such as images, drawings, charts, pictures, photographs, animations, illustrations, and other images added to enhance Web pages and are essential for digital media applications.
history list
method of keeping track of Web pages that have been viewed during time online.
home network
network that connects computers in a home or home office.
home page
starting point for a Web site which is similar to a book cover or table of contents for the site and provides information about the site’s purpose and content.
host
main computer in a network of computers connected by communications links
http://
communication protocol used to transfer pages on the Web.
hyperlink
allow users to navigate quickly from one Web page to another, regardless of whether the Web pages are located on the same computer or on different computers in different countries.
hypermedia
Web page document that contains text, graphics, video, or sound hyperlinks to other documents.
hypertext
web page document that contains text hyperlinks to other documents.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
web page document that contains text hyperlinks to other documents.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
communication protocol used to transfer pages on the Web.
instant messaging (IM)
real-time Internet communications service that notifies a user when one or more people are online and then allows the user to exchange messages or files, or join a private chat room with them.
internal modem
modem built on a circuit board that is installed inside a computer and attaches to a telephone socket using a standard telephone cord.
Internet
world’s largest network, a worldwide collection of networks that link together millions of businesses, governments, educational institutions, and individuals using modems, telephone lines, and other communications devices and media.
Internet backbone
main communication lines that have the heaviest amount of traffic (data packets) on the Internet.
Internet etiquette
the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet. Also called netiquette.
Internet service provider (ISP)
a regional or national access provider
Internet telephony
enables users to speak to other users over the Internet using their desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device. Also called Voice over IP (Internet Protocol).
Internet2 (I2)
enables users to speak to other users over the Internet using their desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device. Also called Voice over IP (Internet Protocol).
link
allow users to navigate quickly from one Web page to another, regardless of whether the Web pages are located on the same computer or on different computers in different countries.
LISTSERV
popular software program used to manage mailing lists
local area network (LAN)
communications network that covers a limited geographical area such as a school, an office, a building, or a group of buildings. A LAN consists of a number of computers connected to a central computer or server.
mail server
internet service provider server that contains user’s mailboxes and e-mail messages.
mailbox
storage location for e-mail that usually resides on the computer that connects a user to the Internet.
mailing list
group of e-mail names and addresses given a single name
marquee
text animated to scroll across the screen.
media convergence
a theory in communications in which every mass medium eventually merges into one medium
message board
due to the advent of new communications technologies.
modem
communications device that converts digital signals into analog signals, enabling computers to communicate via telephone lines.
Mosaic
graphical Web browser developed in 1993.
multimedia
means more than one media and incorporates a variety of elements, including text, graphics, audio, video, virtual reality, and animation.
national ISP
a business that provides Internet access in cities and towns nationwide and broadband access in many locations.
National Science Foundation (NSF)
organization that connected its huge network of five supercomputer centers, called NSFnet, to ARPANET.
Net
world’s largest network, a worldwide collection of networks that link together millions of businesses, governments, educational institutions, and individuals using modems, telephone lines, and other communications devices and media.
netiquette
short for Internet etiquette, the code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the Internet.
network
collection of computers and other equipment organized to share data, information, hardware, and software. Also called communications network
network interface card (NIC)
communications device that connects computers directly to a school or business network without using a modem.
news server
computer that stores and distributes newsgroup messages.
newsgroup
online area in which users conduct written discussions about a particular subject.
newsreader
program that enables access to a newsgroup to read previously entered messages, add articles, and keep tracks of which articles a user has and has not read.
NSFnet
national Science Foundation network of five supercomputer centers, connected to ARPANET, serving as the major backbone network of the Internet until 1995
online community
Web sites that join specific groups of people with similar interests or relationships.
online service provider (OSP)
organization that provides access to the Internet, as well as members-only features that offer a variety of special content and services.
online social network
a Web site that encourages members in its online community to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users. Also called a social networking Web site.
packet
small piece of data sent over the Internet.
packet switching
technique of breaking a message into individual packets, sending the packets along the best route available, and reassembling the data.
participatory Web
refers to Web sites that allow users to modify Web site content, provide a means for users to share personal information, and have application software built into the site for visitors to use.
player
a program that can play audio files on your computer
plug-in
program which extends the capability of a browser
podcast
recorded audio, usually an MP3 file, stored on a Web site that can be downloaded to a computer or a portable media player such as an iPod.
portal
a Web site that offers a variety of Internet services from a single, convenient location.
posting
adding a message to a newsgroup.
power line communications (PLC)
a new and emerging way to connect to the Internet that allows broadband Internet connectivity from any home, school, or office using an electrical outlet.
public Internet access point
wireless connection to the Internet in a public location, such as an airport, hotel, or coffee shop.
real time
something that occurs immediately.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
a protocol that allows users to automatically receive podcast feeds.
regional ISP
a business that usually provides Internet access to a specific geographic area.
relative hyperlink
hyperlink to another document on the same Internet computer.
Role-Playing Game (RPG)
is very popular with middle and high school students and is normally tied to themes or topics.
routers
Hardware device that packets travel along to a recipient’s computer.
satellite modem
similar to a cable or DSL modem and provides high-speed Internet connections.
search engine
search tool that finds Web sites, Web pages, and Internet files that match one or more keywords entered by a user.
search tool
search tool that finds Web sites, Web pages, and Internet files that match one or more keywords entered by a user.
server
computer that manages the resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for software programs and Web.
Short Message Service (SMS)
a service that permits the sending and receiving of short messages and that is available on most digital mobile phones and other mobile devices. Also called text messaging.
spam
unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once.
spoiler
message that reveals a solution to a game or ending to a movie or program.
static Web page
all visitors see the same content.
streaming
process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow
streaming audio
process of transferring audio data in a continuous and even flow, allowing user to listen to a sound file as it downloads to the computer.
streaming video
process of transferring video data in a continuous and even flow, allowing user to view longer or live video images as they are downloaded to the computer.
subject directory
search tool that allows users to navigate to areas of interest without having to enter keywords; instead links are followed to specific topics.
subscribe
process of saving a newsgroup location so it can be accessed easily in the future.
tabbed browsing
the top of the browser displays a tab (similar to a file folder tab) for each Web page you open
tags
set of special codes used in hypertext markup language that define the placement and format of text, graphics, video, and sound on a Web page.
target hyperlink
hyperlink to another location in the same document.
telecommunications
process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information; sometimes called telecommunications.
telepresence systems
a new Web technology which bring people together to interact and collaborate whether they are physically across the street or across the globe.
text messaging
a service that permits the sending and receiving of short messages and that is available on most digital mobile phones and other mobile devices. Also called Short Message Service (SMS).
thread
original newsgroup article and all subsequent related replies. Also called threaded discussion.
threaded discussion
original newsgroup article and all subsequent related replies. Also called thread.
thumbnail
small version of a larger graphical image that can be clicked to display the full-sized image.
traffic
communications activity on the Internet.
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP)
protocol used to define packet switching on the Internet
transmission media
physical materials or other means used to establish a communications channel.
twisted-pair cable
the most widely used transmission medium consisting of pairs of plastic-coated copper wires twisted together; used in standard home telephone lines.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
unique address for each Web page on a Web site; consists of a protocol, domain name, and sometimes the path to a specific Web page.
unsubscribe
process of removing name from mailing list.
upload
process of copying a file to an FTP site.
Usenet
entire collection of Internet newsgroups, containing thousands of newsgroups on a multitude of topics.
username
unique combination of characters that identifies a user.
video
photographic images or visual frames that are played back at speeds of 15 to 60 frames per second and provide the appearance of full motion in real time.
video blog
a blog that contains video clips. Also called a vlog.
virtual reality (VR)
use of a computer to create an artificial environment that appears and feels like a real environment and allows a user to explore space and manipulate the setting; appears as a three-dimensional (3-D) space.
vlog
a blog that contains video clips. Also called a video log.
Voice over IP (VoIP)
enables users to speak to other users over the Internet using their desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device. Also called Internet telephony.
VR world
3-D Web site that contains infinite space and depth.
Web
a worldwide collection of electronic documents that have built-in hyperlinks to other related documents
Web 2.0
refers to Web sites that allow users to modify Web site content, provide a means for users to share personal information, and have application software built into the site for visitors to use.
Web browser
program that interprets HTML and displays Web pages and enables user to link to other Web pages and Web sites. Also called Web browser.
Web page
electronic document viewed on the Web
Web publishing
development and maintenance of Web pages
Web server
computer that delivers (serves) requested Web pages
Web site
collections of related Web pages.
Web surfing
process of exploring the Web by displaying pages from one Web site after another, similar to using a remote control to jump from one TV channel to another
Weblog
an informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order. Also called a blog.
Webmaster
individual responsible for developing Web pages and maintaining a Web site.
Wi-Fi
short for wireless fidelity, a popular term used when referring to any type of 802.11 network.
wide area network (WAN)
network that covers a large geographical region and uses telephone cables, digital lines, wireless systems, satellites, or other combinations of communications channels. A WAN can consist of many local area networks organized into one larger network.
wiki
a collaborative Web site that allows users to create, add to, modify, or delete the Web site content via their Web browser.
wireless Internet service provider(WISP)
a company that provides wireless Internet access to computers with wireless modems or access devices or to Internet-enabled mobile computers or devices.
wireless LAN (WLAN)
local area network that uses no wires; instead, uses wireless media such as radio waves to connect computers and devices in a limited space.
World Wide Web
a worldwide collection of electronic documents that have built-in hyperlinks to other related documents.
XHTML
is flexible and also enables Web pages to be displayed on PDAs and smart phones.
XML
a format increasing in popularity that allows Web page authors to create customized tags known as schema.