Ch. 2 Teachers Discovering Computers

absolute hyperlink
Hyperlink to another document on a different Internet server that could be across the country or across the world.
Acceptable Use Policy (AUP)
An outline of users standards that reminds teachers, students, and parents that they are guests on the Internet and that they need to use it appropriately.
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
Designed to give the US a lead in using science and technology applicable to the military.
Analog Signal
A continuous electrical wave.
Animated GIF
A group of GIF images saved as an animated GIF file.
Animation
A graphic that has the illusion of motion by displaying a series of still images in rapid sequence. Multimedia element that creates the appearance of motion by displaying a series of still images in rapid sequence or a graphic that has the illusion of motion if played back at the proper framing rate.
Anonymous FTP
Anyone can transfer some, if not all, available files.
ARPANET
The internet has its roots in a network that became functional in 1969, linking scientific and academic researchers across the U.S.
article
Message in a news group.
Audio
Any music, speech, or other sound. Any music, speech, or other sound that is stored and produced by the computer.
Backbone
A high speed network that connects regional and local networks to the internet.
Bandwidth
A measure of how fast data travels over transmission channels.
blog
A weblog on the Internet; the thoughts and opinions of a person or group posted online, usually listed in reverse chronological order.
bookmark
Method of keeping track of webpages that have been viewed: records the Web page title and URL, on a computer for use in future Web sessions. Also called favorite.
Broadband
Transmit signals at much faster speeds than traditional network configuration.
Browser
A program that allows a user to display HTML – developed web pages.
Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)
A simple mechanism for adding style to web documents and defines style and formatting properties that are applied to HTML and/or XML-based web pages.
Cable Modem
Modem that sends and receives data over a cable television network.
Chat
A real-time typed conversation over the computer.
Chat Client
Program over the computer that allows connections to chat server.
Chat Room
Communications medium, or channel, that permits users to chat with each other.
Communications
A process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information.
Communications Channel
That path that data follows as the data is transmitted from the sending equipment to the receiving equipment in a communications systems.
Communications Network
Allows educators to communicate, obtain almost unlimited educational information, and enhance student learning.
Communications Software
Programs that manage the transmission of data between computers.
Communications Protocol
Specifies the rules that define how devices connect to each other and transmit data over a network.
Dial- up Access
Using your computer and a modem to dial into an ISP or online service over regular telephone lines.
Dial- Up Modem
A Communication device that can convert digital signals to analog signals and analog signals to digital signals so that data can travel along an analog telephone line.
Digital signal
Individual electrical electrical pulses that a computer uses to represent data.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
High-speed alternative to a modem that uses broadband technology to transmit data on existing standard telephone lines.
Discovery Learning
Branching off and investigating related topics as you encounter them is a nonlinear way of learning.
Domain Name
Text version of a computer address.
Download
Process of copying files to your computer.
Dynamic Web Page
Visitors customize some or all of the viewed content, such as stock quotes, weather for a region, or a ticket availability for flights; visitors see content unique to their settings.
E-mail (electronic mail)
The transmission of messages and files via a computer network.
E-mail Address
A combination of a username and a domain name that identifies the user so he can both send and receive messages.
E-mail program
Software that allows the user to create, send, receive, forward, store, print, and delete electronic messages.
Emoticon
A keyboard character used in combination with text or other emoticons to express emotions.
ePALS
A project designed to enable digital students to develop an understanding of different cultures through student exchanges using many of the Internet-based tools discussed in this chapter.
FAQ
a list of questions that are frequently asked (about a given topic) along with their answers
favorite
Bookmark list stored on a computer.
File transfer protocol (FTP)
System for transferring files over the Internet, often used for uploading websites
Filtering Software
A computer program that is designed to block access to certain Web sites, based on their content. The software blocks the retrieval of a site whose URL or key words are on a list within the program.
Firewall
hardware and/or software that guards a private network by analyzing the information leaving and entering the network
Flame
do not send ___ emails; that is, insulting message designed to cause pain, as when someone “gets burned.”
Flame War
When others response derogatorily with other positions on the disputed topic
FTP Server
Which of the following is a computer that allows users to upload and/or download files using FTP?
FTP Site
A(n) ____is a collection of files including text, graphics, audio, video, and program files
Graphic
Any image—such as a picture, photograph, drawing, illustration, or shape—that can be placed as an object on a page.
Graphical Image
History LIst
Your browser stores the location of each Web page you visit during a single session in a(n) ____.
Home Network
multiple computers and devices connected together by home users.
Home Page
Main page of a web site; usually the first page.
Host
The main computer in the network of computers connected by communications links.
htpp://
Stands for Hypertext TRansfer Protocol, the communications protocol used to transfer pages on the web.
Hyperlink
Allows users to navigate quickly from one web page to another, regardless or whether the Web pages are located on the same computer or on different countries.
Hypermedia
Web page document that contains text, graphics, video, or sound hyperlinks to other documents.
Hypertext
Web page document that contains hyperlinks to other documents.
Hypertext Markup Language
A set of special codes, called tags, that define the placement and format of text, graphics, video, and sound on a Web page.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
Communication protocol used to transfer pages on the web.
Instant Messaging
A real -time Internet communication service that notifies you when one or more people are online and then allows you to exchange messages or files, or join a private chat room with them.
Internet
A global network connecting millions of computers, making it possible to exchange information.
Internet2
An extremely high-speed network that develops and tests advanced Internet technologies for research, teaching, and learning, including those used by Web 2 and Web 3.0.
Internet Backbone
Main Communication lines of high-speed data that connect major computer systems located around the world.
Internet Etiquette
The code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the internet-that is, the conduct expected of individuals while online.
Internet Service Provider
A regional or access provider.
Internet Telephony
Enables users to speak to other users over the Internet using their desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device.
Link
Allow users to navigate quickly from one web page to another, regardless of whether the Web pages are located on the same computer or on different computers in different countries. Also called hyperlink.
LISTSERV
____ is a popular software program used to manage many educational mailing lists.
Local Area Network (LAN)
a computer network physically confined to a relatively small area, such as a single building or a college campus
MagicJack
A USB device that contains both the software and electronics necessary to place outgoing and receive incoming Internet-based telephone calls using your computer.
Mail Server
provides e-mail services and accounts.
Mailbox
Storage location for e-mail that usually resides on the computer that connects a user to the Internet.
Mailing List
A group of e-mail names and address given a single name.
Marquee
Text that is animates to scroll across the screen.
Media Convergence
A theory in communications in which every mass medium eventually merges into one medium due to the advent of new communications technologies.
Media Sharing Website
A specific type of online social network that enables members to share media such as photos, music, and videos.
Message Board
Popular Web-based type of discussion group that does not require a newsreader.
MIcroblog
blogs with strict post length limits
Microbrowser
provides a web browser that is optimized to display web content effectively on the smaller screen such as a smartphones.
Modem
– A device that acts to convert digital information to analog to send information over telephone lines
Mosaic
Early Web browser that displayed documents that included graphics and used a graphical interface.
Multimedia
Different types of media including text, video, sound, graphics and animations.
National ISP
A business that provides Internet access in cities and towns nationwide.
National Science Foundation
Organization that connected its huge network of five supercomputer centers, called NSFnet, to ARPANET.
Net
A global network of computers that contains information on a multitude of subjects.
Netiquette
The code of acceptable behaviors users should follow while on the internet.
News Server
A computer that stores and distributed newsgroup messages.
Newsgroup
An online area in which users conduct written discussions about a particular subject.
Newsreader
Enables you to access a newsgroup to read a previously entered message, called an article, and ad an article of your own, called a posting.
NSFnet
National Science Foundation network of five supercomputer centers, connected to ARPANET.
Online community
Websites that join specific groups of people with similar interests or relationships.
Online Service Provider
Organization that provides access to the internet, as well as members-only features that offer a variety of special content and services.
Online Social Network
Website where members share interests and ideas with other members
Packet
A small unit of data transmitted over a network.
Packet Switching
a method for breaking up long messages into small pieces, or packets, and transmitting them independently across a computer network. Once the packets arrive at their destination, the receiving computer reassembles the message into its original form
Participatory Web
Websites that allow users to modify Website content, provide a means for users to share personal information(social networking), and have application software built into the site for visitors to use.
Player
A program that can play audio files on your computer.
Plug-in
The computer can configure devices on your computer.
Podcast
A recorded audio stored in a file on a web site.
Portal
A Web site that offers a variety of internet services from a single, convenient location.
Posting
Adding a message to newsgroup
Public Internet Access Point
Wireless connection to the internet in a public location , such as an airport, hotel, or coffee shop.
Real Time
Online interactive communication between two computer systems allowing instant transfer of information.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
A protocol that allows users to automatically receive podcast feeds.
Regional ISP
A business that usually provides internet access to a specific geographical area.
Relative Hyperlink
When you link to another document on the same internet server.
Router
Hardware device that packets travel along to a recipient’s computer.
Satellite Modem
modem that allows you to get Internet access from your satellite dish.
Schema
Customized tags created by WEb page authors using XML.
Search Engine
A software program you can use to find Web sites, Web pages, and Internet files.
Search Tool
Enable users to locate information found at web sites.
Semantic Web
Developing a seamless integration of databases with the Internet is something called a(n) ______
Server
Manages the resources on a network and provides a centralized storage area for software programs and data.
Short Message Service
A text messaging service component of phone, web, or mobile communication systems, using standardized communications protocols that allow the exchange of short text messages between fixed line or mobile phone devices.
Spam
Email messages sent from an unknown sender to many email accounts at once.
Spoiler
A message that reveals a solution to a game or ending to a movie or program.
Static Web Page
All visitors see the same content.
Streaming
THe process of transferring data in a continuous and even flow.
Streaming Audio
Process of downloading audio in which you can listen to the file while the data is being downloaded to your computer.
Streaming Video
Transmitting video files that can begin playing over the internet as the remaining data is still being downloaded. Creates little to no wait time to begin viewing the video file. Example websites that use streaming video technology include YouTube, Netflix, Vimeo, UStream, etc.
Subject Directory
A type of search tool that allows users to navigate to aers of interest without having to enter keywords.
Subscribe
Allows a newsreader to save the location of an RSS feed so you can access it easily in the future.
Tabbed Browsing
The top of the browser displays a tab(similar to the file folder tab) for each web page you open.
Tags
A set of special codes that define the placement and format of text, graphics, video, and sound on a web page.
Target Hyperlink
Link to another location in the same document.
Telecommunications
A process in which two or more computers or devices transfer data, instructions, and information.
Text Messaging
a popular form of communication among mobile users that relies on SMS technology
Thread
Original newsgroup article and all subsequent related replies.
Threaded Discussion
Original newsgroup article and all subsequent related replies.
Thumbnail
A small version of a larger graphical image that usually you can click to display the full size image.
Traffic
The bulk of communication activity on the internet.
Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
The protocol used to define packet switching on the internet.
Transmission Media
THe physical materials or other means used to establish a communication channel.
Twisted Pair Cable
The most widely used transmission medium consisting of pairs of plastic-coated copper wires twisted together; used in standard home telephone lines.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
Unique address for each WEb page on a web site; consists of a protocol, domain name, and sometimes the path to a specific web page.
Unsubscribe
Process of removing your name from a mailing list.
Upload
Process of copying a file to an FTP site.
Usenet
Entire collection of Internet newsgroups, containing thousands of newsgroups on a multitude of topics.
Username
A unique combination combination of characters that identifies you;it must differ from other usernames located on the same mail server.
Video
Output that consists of visual frames that are played back at speeds of 15 to 60 frames per sec and provide full motion in real time.
Video Blog
A blog that contains video clips.
Virtual Reality
The simulation of a real or imagined environment that appears as a three- dimensional space. The use of a computer to create an artificial environment that appears and feels like a real environment and allows you to explore space and manipulate the setting.
Vlog
A blog that contains video clips.
Voice over IP (VoIP)
Enables users to speak to other users over the internet using desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device.
VR World
A 3-d site that contains infinite space and depth.
Web
WEb 2.0
Web 3.0
Web App.
Web Applications
Web Browser
A program that interprets HTML and displays WEb pages and enables you to link to other Web pages and Web sites.
Web Page
An electronic document viewed on the web. A web page can contain text, graphics,sound, and video,as well as hyperlinks to other Web pages.
Web Publishing
The development and maintenance of Web pages.
Web Server
A computer that delivers (serves) requested Web pages.
Website
A collection of related Web pages.
Web surfing
Displaying pages from one Web site after another.
Weblog
An informal web site consisting of time-stamped articles, or posts, in a diary or journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order. Also called a blog.
Webmaster
The person responsible for developing Web pages and maintaining a web site.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Covers a large geographical region (such as a city or school district) and used regular telephone lines, digital cables, microwaves, wireless system, satellites, or other combination of communications channels; can consist of numerous LANs organized into one larger network.
Wiki
A collaborative website that allows users to create, add to,modify, or delete the web site content via their web browser.
Wireless LAN (WLAN)
A LAN that uses no wires. Instead of wires, a WLAN uses wireless media, such as radio waves.
Wireless Internet Service Provider (WISP)
A company that provides wireless Internet access to computers with wireless modems or access devices or to internet-enabled mobile computers or devices.
World Wide Web (WWW)
Consists of a worldwide collection of electronic documents that have built-in hyperlinks to other related documents.
XML
Extensible Markup Language- A format increasing in popularity that allows web page authors to create customized tags known as schema.
XHTML
A flexible format for developing web pages that enables web pages also to be displayed on PDAs and smartphones.