Ch. 37

Sunbelt states
States of the south and west that continued to lure residence from Midwest and Northeast
Women
By 2000 were almost 50% of the workforce; made up over a third of the new doctors; 40% of the new lawyers; and 23% of the new dentists
Postindustrial
Economy at the end of the 20th century that continued to shift from manufacturing to professional service industries, particularly those specializing in telecommunications and information processing
Mexicans
Among all the legal immigrants became the largest share averaging in over 100,000 a year
Proposition 187
A controversial initiative that denied California’s estimated 4 million illegal immigrants access to public schools, non-emergency healthcare, and other social services
ENIAC
Electronic numerical integrator and computer, built in 1946, the early, cumbersome ancestor of the modern computer
Microprocessor
Invented in 1971; a tiny computer on a silicon chip; the functions that had once been performed by computers taking up an entire room could be performed by a microchip circuit the size of a postage stamp
Ed Roberts
An engineer who, in 1975 develops the Proto type of the so-called personal computer
Altair 8800
The prototype for the personal computer developed by Ed Roberts ; was in perfect and cumbersome, with no display, no keyboard, and not enough memory to do anything useful but it’s potential excited a Harvard sophomore named Bill Gates
Bill Gates
A man who, as a Harvard sophomore, improved the software of the Altair 8800 and eventually helped to transform the personal computer from a hobby machine to a mass consumer product
Pat Robertson
It television evangelist who organized the Christian Coalition to replace Jerry Falwell’s moral majority as the flagship organization of the resurgent religious right
Christian Coalition
A group that encouraged religious conservatives to vote, run for public office, and support only those candidates who shared the organizations valued; chose the Republican Party as the best vehicle for promoting it’s pro school prayer, anti abortion, anti-gay rights positions
Downsizing
When companies reduce personnel, switch employees to part-time status to reduce benefits, and find other ways to cut labor costs
George H. W. Bush
President who promised no new taxes and his administration encountered the most devastating development in the early 90s which was a prolonged economic recession; when against his no new taxes pledge
Patrick Buchanan
At the 1992 Republican convention; won about a third of the votes in the parties primaries, lambasted Bush for breaking his pledge not to raise taxes in for becoming the biggest spender in American history; A television commentator for my weight has aid who challenged bush in the Republican primary
Clarence Thomas
A conservative federal judge who was accused of sexually harassing Anita Hill
Bill Clinton
President who faced allegations of both sexual and financial scandal that grew into a relentless inquiry such as no previous president had ever before encountered; at the age of 32 was elected as the Arkansas governor, youngest governor in the country; major public policy initiative was a federal healthcare plan
Slick Willie
The label critics gave to Bill Clinton
Albert Gore
Vice president from Tennessee under Bill Clinton who ran for presidency in 2000 and lost to George W. Bush; ran on a platform dedicated to fiscal responsibility
Election of 1992
Democrat: Bill Clinton
Republican: George HW Bush

Clinton won the election

H. Ross Perot
Off and on independent presidential candidate and billionaire who found a big audience for his simplified explanations of public problems and his offers to just “get under the hood and fix them”
Family and medical leave act
Allowed certain workers to take 12 weeks of unpaid leave each year for family health problems, including birth or adoption of a child
North America Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA)
Trade agreement with Canada and Mexico allowed goods to travel across their borders free of tariffs; critics argued that American workers would lose their jobs to cheaper Mexican labor
Midterm Elections of 1994
The first election since 1952 in which Republicans captured both houses of Congress at the same time; not a single Republican incumbent was defeated
Newton Leroy Gingrich
Republican speaker of the house who launched a series of attacks on the ethics of the Democratic leadership in the house, and to help mobilize religious and social conservatives associated with the Christian Coalition
Contract with America
A 10 point contract that outlined an anti-big-government program with less regulation, less conservation, term limits for members of Congress, a line item veto for the president, welfare reform, and a balanced budget amendment; developed by Gingrich
Branch Dividians
Religious cult that lived communally near Waco, Texas, and was involved in a fiery 1993 confrontation with federal authorities in which dozens of cult members died
Waco, Texas
Where confrontation between federal authorities and a militia group resulted in catastrophic consequences
Personal responsibility and work opportunity act of 1996
Welfare reform measure that mandated stay in ministration a federal agent poor; also limited the amount of time during which a person can receive welfare benefits funded by federal money and required but at least half of the states welfare is it Bienz have jobs are being rolled in job-training programs by 2002
Election of 1996
Republican: Bob Dole
Democrat: Bill Clinton

Clinton won

Bob Dole
Republican Senate majority leader who ran against Bill Clinton in the 1996 presidential election
Alan Greenspan
Federal reserve board chairman whose firm and astute leadership helped American business and industry witness record profits as the 20th century came to a close
Madeleine Albright
Ambassador to the United Nations who became the first woman to head the State Department
“New Economy”
Centered on highflying computer, and software, telecommunications, and Internet firms
Adarand Constructors v Pena
1995
A case in which the court assessed a program that gave some advantages to business owned by “disadvantaged” minorities
Hopwood v Texas
1996
A case in which the fifth circuit court ruled that considering race to achieve a diverse student body at the University of Texas was not a compelling interest under the 14th amendment
Proposition 209
An initiative passed by The state of California that ruled out race, sex, ethnicity, or national origin as criteria for preferring any group
Whitewater Development Corporation
A resort project on the white river in northern Arkansas that the Clintons invested in that turned out to be a fraud and a failure
Kenneth Starr
A Republican who was appointed to serve as independent counsel in the Whitewater case; his extensive investigation did not uncover evidence that the Clintons were directly involved in the fraud; submitted to Congress on September 9, 1998 submitted a 445 page report and 18 boxes of supporting material; found substantial in credible evidence of presidential wrongdoing
Monica Lewinsky
The White House intern in which president Clinton had sexual relations with
High crimes and misdemeanors
The constitutional requirement for removal of a president
Haiti
The Caribbean island nation in which had emerged suddenly from a cycle of coups with a democratic election in 1990, which brought to the presidency a popular priest, Jean-Bertrand Aristide
Jean-Bertrand Aristide
A popular priest brought to the presidency in Haiti in the democratic election of 1990; a Haitian army general ousted him and the U. S. announced its intentions to bring him back and welcomed the United Nations into the process
Ethnic cleansing
The driving of people from their homes and towns, burning villages, murdering males, raping females, and displacing hundreds of thousands of people
Israel-PLO Agreement
Agreement between Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Yasir Arafat, which provided for the restoration of Palestinian self-rule in the occupied Gaza strip and in Jericho, on the West Bank, in an exchange of land for peace as provided in UN Security Council resolution’s. A formal signing occurred at the White House on September 13, 1993
Yitzhak Rabin
Israeli prime minister; in 1995 was assassinated at a peace rally in Tel Aviv by a Jewish Israeli zealot who resented his efforts to negotiate with the Palestinians
Yasir Arafat
PLO leader
Wye River Memorandum
Under this, Israel agreed to surrender land in return for security guarantees by the Palestinians; in October 1998 Clinton brought Arafat, Netanyahu, and King Hussein of Jordan together at a conference center in Maryland where they reached an agreement
Serb minorities
Backed by the new Republic of Serbia, stirred up a civil wars in Croatia and Bosnia; The wars involved ethnic cleansing
Bosnia
Remained a single nation but would be divided into two states: a Muslim-Croat federation controlling 51% of the territory and a Bosnian-Serb republic controlling the remaining 49%
Kosovo
A Yugoslav province which has long been considered sacred ground by Christian Serbs
Slobodan Milosevic
Yugoslav president who decided to reassert Serbian control over Kosovo. He stripped it of its autonomy and established de facto martial law
Election of 2000
Revealed that voters were split evenly along partisan lines

Democrat: Al Gore
Republican: George W Bush
Independent: Patrick Buchanan
Independent: Ralph Nader

For the first time in 125 years, the results of the presidential election remained in doubt for weeks after the voting

George W. Bush
The Republican and son of the former president, presented sharply contrasting views on the role of the federal government, tax cuts, environmental policies, and the best way to preserve Social Security and Medicare; talk freely about his commitment to compassionate conservatism
Vouchers
Cash grants
Ralph Nader
Independent candidate and a liberal activist who ran in the 2000 election; concentrated on the corrupting effects of campaign finances and the need for more robust efforts to protect the environment
Bush v Gore
U.S. Supreme Court case that determined the winner of the disputed 2000 presidential election
James Jeffords
Vermont senator who changed his party affiliation from republican to independent-a major blow for the president since it resulted in the Democrats gaining narrow control of the Senate, 50-49
No Child Left Behind
2001
An education improvement plan passed by Congress; it required states to set new learning standards and ensure that all students were proficient at reading and math by 2014; it also mandated that all teachers be highly qualified in their subject area by 2005, allowed children in low-performing schools to transfer to other schools, and required states to submit annual reports of student scores on standardized test
Richard Cheney
Vice president under George W. Bush who had served as secretary of defense under the senior George Bush
9/11
At 8:45 AM on September 11, 2001 a commercial airliner hijacked by Islamic terrorist slammed into the north tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, a second hijacked jumbo jet, traveling at 500 mph, the south tower 18 minutes later; well the catastrophic drama in New York was unfolding, a third hijacked plane crashed into the Pentagon in Washington DC; a fourth airliner, probably headed for the White House, missed it’s Mark with passengers – who hung heard reports of the earlier hijackings via cell phones – assaulted the hijackers to prevent The plane from being used as a weapon
Article 5
Invoked by NATO, stated that an attack on any member will be considered an attack on all members
Al-Qaeda
(The base) A well-financed worldwide network of Islamic extremists Led by Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
He will the Saudi renegade who sought to mobilize Muslim militants, energized by local causes, into a global army aimed at the west; earlier had declared holy war on the United States, Israel, and the Saudi monarchy
Taliban
And ultraconservative Islamic faction that emerged in the mid-1990s following the forced withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan; provided been lot in with a safe haven in exchange for his financial and military support against the Northern alliance
Jihad
Holy war
Northern Alliance
A coalition of rebel groups opposed to Taliban rule
Operation Enduring Freedom
A ferocious military campaign launched by the United States and its allies to find and punish terrorists or those harboring terrorists
The Office of Homeland Security
A new federal agency created to address the threat of domestic terrorism and to help restore public confidence after 9/11
Transportation Security Administration
A new federal agency that assumed responsibility for screening airline passengers
Patriot Act
New legislation that gave government agencies the right to eavesdrop on confidential conversations between prison inmates in their lawyers and permitted suspected terrorists to be tried in secret military courts
Bush Doctrine
President Bush declared, required a new doctrine of preemptive military action
Resolution 1441
Passed by the UN Security Council, ordered Iraq to disarm immediately or face serious consequences
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Military operation meant to dispose of Saddam Hussein. Involved a massive bombing campaign followed closely by a fast-moving ground invasion
Donald Rumsfeld
Secretary of defense under Bush who saw the Iraq war as an opportunity to showcase America’s new military strategy with its focus on airpower, precision weaponry, sophisticated communications, and noble ground forces adept at stealth and speed
Election of 2004
Democrat: John Kerry
Republican: George Bush

Election remarkable for its high voter turnout

John Kerry
Democrat who faced Bush in the 2004 election; attacked his misleading of the American public on the subject of nuclear weapons in Iraq; lost the election due to the swing state of Ohio
John G. Roberts
Replaced O’Connor in the Supreme Court, was a social conservative Circuit Court judge with impeccable credentials; was approved by the Senate on a vote of 78 to 22; he was named chief justice after the former died
Harriet E. Miers
Personal friend and former lawyer to George Bush; was appointed to the Supreme Court, sparking controversy; she later retracted her nomination, a humiliation to the Bush administration
Samuel Alito
A federal judge and favorite of conservatives nominated by Bush to fill O’Connor’s seat on the Supreme Court; the Senate confirmed him on January 31, 2006
Hurricane Katrina
2005; A natural disaster that took place in late August, a killer hurricane that slammed into the gulf coast, devastating large areas of Alabama, Mississippi, in Louisiana
Economist
And influential conservative news magazine, declared that Bush had become the least popular reelected president since Richard Nixon became embroiled in the Watergate fiasco
Nancy Pelosi
The leader of the Democrats in the House of Representatives, became the highest ranking woman in the history of the US Congress upon her election as House Speaker in January 2007
Iraq Study Group
Created by President Bush, a non-partisan task force cochaired by Lee H. Hamilton, and James A. Baker
The surge
Would involve a change in strategy as well as additional soldiers; the US troops would shift their focus from offense of operations to the protection of Iraqi civilians from attacks by terrorist insurgents and sectarian militias; this strategy succeeded from a military perspective, but failed to attain its political objectives
Troubled Asset Relief Program (TARP)
A far reaching historic bank bailout signed by President Bush; called for the treasury department to spend $700 billion to keep banks and other financial institutions from collapsing
Hillary Clinton
New York senator, the highly visible spouse of Ex-President Bill Clinton; displayed an impressive command of policy issues and mobilized a well-funded campaign team, she garnered widespread support among voters eager for female leadership; secretary of State under Obama
Barack Obama
Little known first term senator of Illinois, and inspiring speaker who attracted huge crowds by promising a “politics of hope” and bolstering their desire for “change”; mounted and innovative Internet-based campaign directed at grassroots voters, donors, and volunteers; was especially popular among the young people; Was the first African-American president chill nominee of either party
John McCain
72-year-old Arizona senator, was the oldest presidential candidate in history
Sarah Palin
Alaska governor chosen by John McCain as his running mate; the first woman on the Republican ticket
Joe Biden
Veteran Delaware senator chosen by Obama as his running mate
Election of 2008
Democrat: Barack Obama
Republican: John McCain

On November 4, 2008 Barack Obama made history by becoming the nation’s first person of color elected President

Eric Holder
Appointed by Barack Obama as the nation’s first African-American Attorney General
American recovery and reinvestment act
Passed by Congress and signed by Obama, 80 $787 billion economic stimulus bill – the largest in history – including cash distributions to the states, funds for food stamps, unemployment benefits, construction projects to renew the nations infrastructure, funds for renewable energy systems, and tax reductions