Ch 6 Public Opinion, political socialization, and the media

Which of the following is true?
Scholars believe that greater access to information may explain why young Americans are more liberal than their parents on many social issues.
Which of the following is true?
If individuals believe that one source of news is biased or questionable, they have numerous other sites and sources that can be examined.
Which of the following is true?
The 1960s and 1970s, dominated by events such as Vietnam and Watergate, gave rise to widespread cynicism about the government.
Which of the following is true?
People in large cities tend to be liberal and Democratic while people in smaller communities tend to be conservative and Republican.
Modern polling was developed
in the 1930s by George Gallup and Elmo Roper.
Blogs and the Internet have
made it more difficult for candidates to control their campaigns.
The most important principle in sampling is
the random selection of respondents.
The answers given by respondents to poll questions are influenced by all of the following except
the natural desire of respondents to anger and antagonize the interviewer.
The public agenda
consists of issues that the political community feels merit governmental attention and action.
General agreement among the citizenry on an issue is
a consensus.
The survey researchers decide how many persons of certain types they need in a survey and then send out interviewers to find the necessary number of these types in
quota sampling
The degree to which individuals express trust in the government is called
political trust
A random sample means that
every person in the target population has an equal chance of being selected.
The rich tend to be
opposed to government interventions in the economy
The values that shape American political culture include all of the following except
government control of the economy
Gallup reported that beginning in 2004, the “most important problem” identified by their respondents each year was
the war in Iraq
Public opinion affects the political process
because support by the public as expressed in opinion polls is a source of power for elected officials when dealing with other politicians.
The following is an example of ____ opinion. “To reduce the threat of terrorism, would you be willing or not willing to allow government agencies to monitor the telephone calls and e-mail of ordinary Americans on a regular basis?” (Willing: 41%; Not willing: 52%. Don’t know/No answer: 7%.)
divided
Voters who are more devout and attend services regularly, regardless of church affiliation, are
usually culturally conservative on political issues
The mass media perform all of the following functions except
funding media watchdog groups.
Public Opinion
the aggregate of individual attitudes or beliefs shared by some portion of the adult population
Consensus
General agreement among the citizenry on an issue.
Divided Opinion
public opinion that is polarized between two quite different positions
Political Socialization
the process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs and values
Peer Group
A group consisting of members sharing common social characteristics. These groups play an important part in the socialization process, helping to shape attitudes and beliefs.
Opinion Leader
one who is able to influence the opinions of others because of position, expertise, or personality
Media
the channels of mass communication
Agenda Setting
determining which public-policy questions will be debated or considered
Generational Effect
a long-lasting effect of the events of a particular time on the political opinions of those who came of political age at that time
Watergate Break-In
the 1972 illegal entry into the democratic national committee offices by participants in president richard nixon’s reelection campaign
Gender Gap
The difference between the percentage of women who vote for a particular candidate and the percentage of men who vote for the candidate.
Opinion Poll
A method of systematically questioning a small, selected sample of respondents who are deemed representative of the total population.
Sampling Error
the difference between a sample’s results and the true result if the entire population had been interviewed
Political Trust
The degree to which individuals express trust in the government and political institutions, usually measured through a specific series of survey questions.
Public Agenda
Issues that are perceived by the political community as meriting public attention and governmental action.
Sound Bite
a brief, memorable comment that can easily be fit into news broadcasts
Spin
an interpretation of campaign events or election results that is favorable to the candidate’s campaign strategy
Spin Doctor
a political campaign adviser who tries to convince journalists of the truth of a particular interpretation of events
Bias
An inclination or preference that interferes with impartial judgement.
Sources of political socialization
Family and social environment, education, peer to peer groups, opinion leaders are examples of ____________.
Problems with Polls
only a snapshot of public opinion at one specific time. Sampling errors, Poll questions, and unscientific or Fraudulent polls are some of the problems.
Functions of the Media
Entertainment, reporting the news, identify public problems/public agenda, socialize new generation, provide political forums, make profits.
TV coverage during campaigns
three types: advertising, management of news coverage, and campaign debates.