Ch.6

ARPANET
created in 1969 to help scientists communicate and share computer resources. UCLA, Stanford, u of utah, and u of cal santa barbara
NSF network
created in 1985 to create a larger network. Connected multiple LANS, not just mainframes. Created an internet (different than the Internet)
primitive command-line user interfaces
send e-mail, transfer files, run scientific calculations on Internet supercomputers, difficult to use with limited access
new user friendly internet tools
introduced in 1990s, internet accounts became available, monthly subscription fee
the Internet
not owned or operated by any single corporation or government
Internet backbone
a network of high capacity communications links. Provides the main routes for data traffic across the Internet. Backbone links and routers- maintained by Network Service Providers
NAPs (Network access points)
link and connect NSP equipment
ISP (Internet service provider)
a company that offers Internet access to individuals, businesses, and smaller ISPs
modem
how you communicate with an ISP. communications device such as a modem
static IP address
permanently assigned
dynamic IP address
temporarily assigned
domain name
a key component of web page addresses and email addresses
latency
elapsed time for data to make a round trip from point A to point B and back to point A. Ping and traceroute
asymmetric internet connection
when upstream speeds differ from downstream speeds
symmetric internet connection
when upstream and downstream speeds are the same
internet connection options
fixed, portable, and mobile
dial up connection
fixed internet connection, uses a voiceband modem and telephone lines to transport data between your computer and your ISP
Voiceband modem
converts computer signals into audible analog signals that can travel over telephone lines. Speed is measured in bits per second
DSL connection
high speed, digital, always on connection, runs over standard phone lines. Speed varies
cable connection
high speed, always on connection, uses the same infrastructure as the cable television service
cable modem
convert computer signals into those that can travel over the CATV network
DOCSIS compliant cable modems
secures your computer from your neighbors
satellite internet service
high speed, always on, asymmetric, broadcasts signals to and from a personal satellite dish
satellite modem
modulates computer data signals into a frequency band to carry to the satellite dish. Satellite dish converts signals to another frequency, amplifies, and transmits
fixed wireless internet service
broadcasts signals to offer internet access to large areas, always on, high speed
WiMAX
most well known fixed wireless standard. Transmits data to and from WiMAX antennas mounted on towers. Transmit data at 70 mbps
portable internet access
the ability to easily move your internet service from one location to another
mobile internet access
offers a continuous internet connection as you are walking or riding in a bus, car, train, or plane
wifi hotspot
an area in which the public can access a wifi network that offers internet service. does not typically provide acceptable mobile internet access
portable WiMAX
internet acess is available to subscribers anywhere within a tower’s coverage. you use the same ISP whether you are at home or on the road. limited coverage
mobile WiMAX
up and coming standard
WAP (wireless application protocol)
provides internet access from handheld devices
wireless modems
provides broadband data access by cellular service providers
cloud computing
apps and data are available anytime, anywhere, on any device. Depends on a grid of servers, storage devices and protocols. SaaS
VoIP (voice over internet protocol)
communication technology, a broadband internet connection is used to place telephone calls instead of the regular phone system
asynchronous types of communication
internet forum, wiki, blog, tweet
grid computing system
a network of computers harnessed together to perform processing tasks
distributed grid
special type of grid where users voluntarily donate processing power to the grid. [email protected] project.
FTP
file transfer protocol. Rules to transfer files from one computer to another over any TCP/IP network
file sharing
aka P2P file sharing, allows users to obtain files from other users located anywhere on the Internet
BitTorrent
file sharing protocol. Distributes the role of file server across a collection of dispersed computers
intrusion
any access to data or programs by hackers, criminals, or other unauthorized persons
communications port
doorway that allows a computer to exchange data with other devices
port probe
uses automated software to locate computers that have open ports and are vulnerable to unauthorized access
firewall
software or hardware designed to filter out suspicious packets attempting to enter or leave a computer
NAT (Network address translation)
process router uses to keep track of packets and their corresponding private or public IP addresses
VPN
how you can create a secure connection for remote users. Employees who need access are given instructions, addresses, and passwords to make connections