Ch10

threat
a person or organizaiton that seeks to obtain or alter data or other IS assets illegally, without the owner’s permission or knowledge
vulnerability
an opportunity for threats to gain access to individual or organizational assets
safeguard
some measure that individual or organizations take to block the threat from obtaining the asset
target
an asset desired by the threat
human errors and mistakes
include accidental problems caused by employees and non employees
computer crime
includes employees and former employees who intentionally destroy data or other system components
unauthorized data disclosures
occurs then a threat obtains data that is supposed to be protected
pretexting
occurs when someone deceives by pretending to be someone else
phishing
obtaining unauthorized data by using pretexting via email, also known as email spoofing
phisher
the person who pretends to be a legitimate company and sends an email requesting confidential data
IP spoofing
occurs when an intruder uses another site’s IP address to masquerade as that other site
sniffing
a technique for intercepting computer communications
wardrivers
simply take computers with wireless connections through an area and search for unprotected wireless networks
hacking
braking into a computers, servers, or networks to steal data such as customer lists
incorrect data modification
incorrectly increasing a customer’s discounts or incorrectly modifying employees salary
system errors
incorrect data modification caused by human error such as the lost update problem
faulty service
includes problems that result because of incorrect system operation
usurpation
occurs when computer criminals invade a computer system and replace legitimate programs with their own unauthorized ones
Denial of service
human error in following procedures or lack of procedures can result in ____ caused by consuming so many resources, entry can’t get through
advanced persistent threat
a sophisticated, possibly long-term computer hack that is perpetrated by large well funded organizations such as governments- used to engage in cyber war and espionage
Stuxnet
reputed to have been used to set back the Iranian nuclear program
flame
a large complex computer program that operates as a cyber spy
intrusion detection system
is a computer program that senses when another computer is attempting to scan or access a computer or network
brute force attack
the password cracker tries every possible combination of characters
cookies
small files that your browser receives when you visit web sites
manage risk
proactively balance the trade off between risk and cost
identification
the username identifies the user
authentication
the password authenticates the user
smart card
a plastic card similar to a credit card which have a microchip with much more data, requires PIN
biometric authentication
uses personal physical characteristics such as fingerprints to authenticate users
encryption
the process of transforming clear text into coded, unintelligible text for secure storage or communication
encryption algorithms
procedures for encrypting data that is difficult to break
key
a number used to encrypt the data
symmetric encryption
the same key is used to encode and to decode
asymmetric encryption
two keys are used, one key to encode the message, another key decodes the message
public key encryption
a special version on asymmetric encryption where a public key for encoding messages and a private key for decoding messages
https
most secure communication over the internet uses protocol ___
secure sockets layer
data are encrypted using a protocol called ___ (also called transport layer security)
firewall
a computing device that prevents unauthorized network access, simply a filter
perimeter firewall
sits outside the organizational network, is the first device the internet traffic encounters
internal firewall
inside the organizational network, protects a LAN
packet filtering firewall
examines each part of a message and determines whether to let the part pass, simplest type
malware
a broad category of software the includes viruses, spyware, and adware
virus
a computer program that replicates itself, consumer’s a computer’s resources
payload
can delete program data or modify data in undetected ways, the program code that causes the unwanted actions
trojan horse
viruses hat masquerades useful programs or files
worm
a virus that self propagates using the internet or other computer network, speak faster than other virus types because they replicate themselves
spyware
programs are installed on the user’s computer without the user’s knowledge or permission
key loggers into a form in which they are supposed to enter a name or other data
captures keystrokes to obtain usernames, passwords, account numbers and other sensitive information
adware
is similar to spyware in that it is installed without the user’s permission and resides in the background and observes user behavior
malware definitions
patterns that exist in malware code should be downloaded frequently
SQL injection attack
occurs when users enter a SQL statement and a program will accept this code and make it part of the database command
data safeguards
protect databases and other organizational data
data administration
refers to an organization wide function that is in charge of developing data polices and enforcing data standards
key escrow
a trusted party should have a copy of the encryption key
human safeguards
involves that people and procedure components of information systems
lease possible privilege
given appropriate job descriptions, user accounts should be defined to give users ____ needed to perform their jobs
position sensitivity
enables security personnel to prioritize their activities in accordance with possible risks and losses
enforcement
____ consists of three factors: responsibility, accountability, and compliance
hardening
a site means to take extraordinary measures to reduce a system’s vulnerability
honeypots
false targets for computer criminals to attack