Chapter 1 – Introduction to the World of Computers

Input
The process of entering data into a computer; can also refer to the data itself.
Processing
Performing operations on data that has been input into a computer to convert that input to output.
Output
The processor presenting the results o processing; can also refer to the results themselves.
Communications
The transmission of data from one device to another.
Data
Raw, unorganized facts.
Information
Data that has been process into a meaningful form.
Windows desktop
The background work area displayed on the screen in Microsoft Windows.
Application Software
Programs that enable users to perform specific tasks on a computer, such as writing letters or playing games.
Embedded computer
A tiny computer embedded in a product and designed to perform specific tasks or functions for that product.
Mobile device
A very small communications device that has built-in computing or Internet capability.
Smartphone
A mobile device based on a mobile phone.
Personal computer (PC)
A type of computer based on a microprocessor and designed to be used by one person at a time; also called a microcomputer
Portable computer
A small personal computer, such as a notebook, table, netbook, or ultra-mobile PC (UMPC), designed to be carried around easily.
Notebook computer
A fully functioning portable computer that opens to reveal a screen and keyboard; also called a laptop computer.
Tablet computer
A portable computer about the size of a notebook that is designed to be used with an electronic pen.
Netbook
A very small notebook computer
Ultra-mobile PC (UMPC)
A portable personal computer that is small enough to fit in one hand; also called a handheld computer.
Thin client
A personal computer designed to access a network for processing and data storage, instead of performing those tasks locally; also called a network computer (NC).
Internet appliance
A specialized network computer designed primarily for Internet access and/or e-mail exchange.
Midrange server
A medium-sized computer used to host programs and data for a small network.
Virtualization
Creating vital(rather than actual) versions of a computing resource, such as several separate environments that are located on a single server but act like different servers.
Mainframe computer
A computer used in large organizations (such as hospitals, large businesses, and colleges) that need to manage large amounts of centralized data and run multiple programs simultaneously.
Supercomputing cluster
A supercomputer comprised of numerous smaller computers connected together to act as a single computer.
ISP Internet service provider
A business or other organization that provides Internet access to others, typically for a fee.
World Wide Web (WWW)
The collection of Web pages available through the Internet.
Web page
A document, typically containing hyperlinks to other documents, located on a Web server and available through the World Wide Web.
Web server
A computer that is continually connected to the Internet and hosts Web pages that are accessible through the Internet.
Web browser
A program used to view Web pages.
Internet address
An address that identifies a computer, person, or Web page on the Internet, such as an IP address, domain name, or e-mail address.
IP address
A numeric Internet address used to uniquely identify a computer on the Internet.
Domain name
A test-based Internet address used to uniquely identify a computer on the Internet.
Uniform resource locator (URL)
An Internet address (usually beginning with http://) that uniquely identifies a Web page.
E-mail address
An Internet address consisting of a username and computer domain name that uniquely identifies a person on the Internet.
Username
A name that uniquely identifies a user on a specific computer network.
Electronic mail (e-mail)
Electronic messages sent from one user to another over the Internet or other network.