Chapter 11

Collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use of that data
Database
Collection of unprocessed items
Text
Numbers
Images
Audio
Video
Data
Processed data
Organized
Meaningful
Useful
Information
-create a computerized database
– add, modify, and delete data
-sort retrieve data
– create forms and reports from the data
Database Software (also called Database Management System DBMS)
reflects the quality of the data
Data Integrity
The more____the data contains, the lower its integrity
errors
Valuable information should have the following characteristics:
-accurate
– accesible
-cost effective
-organized
-timely
-verifiable
-useful
__ is organized in layers
Data
Data layers:
Files, records, fields, characters
A ___ is one byte
Character
Numbers, letters, space, punctuation marks, or other symbols
Characters
A field is a combination of one or more related characters:
-field name
-field size
– data type
A __ is a group of related fields
record
A ____ is a field that uniquely identifies each record
primary key
A ___ is a collection of related records
data file
___ refers to the procedures that keep data current (adding records, modifying records, deleting records)
File maintenance
Users add new records to a file when they obtain
new data
When a record no longer is needed, a user deletes it from a
file
___ compares data with a set of rules or values to find out if the data is correct
Validation
-Each department has its own set of files
-Have data redundancy
-Isolate data
File Processing System
A ___ contains data about each file in the database and each field in those files
data dictionary
A ___ provides several tools that allow users and programs to retrieve and maintain data in the database
DBMS
A ___ consists of simple, English-like statements that allow users to specify the data to display, print, store, update, or delete
query language
___ is a popular query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data
Many DBMSs provide tools to guide nontechnical users through the steps of creating a query
Structured Query Language (SQL)
Most DBMSs include ____, a feature that has a graphical user interface to assist users with retrieving data
query by example (QBE)
A__ is a window on the screen that provides areas for entering or modifying data in a database
form
A ____ allows users to design a report on the screen, retrieve data into the report design, and then display or print the report
report writer
A __ provides means to ensure that only authorized users access data
DBMS
A __ defines how users view the organization of the data
data model
A ___ stores data in tables that consist of rows and columns
relational database
Each __has a primary key
row
Each __ has a unique name
column
A __ is a link within the data
relationship
An___ stores data in objects
object-oriented database (OODB)
A ___ can store data in more than two dimensions of data
multidimensional database
multidimensional database is also known as a
hypercube
Can consolidate data much faster than a relational database
multidimensional databases
A____ is a huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions
data warehouse
___ and administrators are responsible for managing and coordinating all database activities
Database analysts
Decides on proper placement of fields, defines data relationship, and identifies users’ access privileges
Database Analyst (DA)
Creates and maintains the data dictionary, manages security of the database, monitors the performance of the database, and checks backup and recovery procedures
Database Administrator DBA
An ___ is a set of hardware, software, data, people, and procedures that work together to produce information
information system
____ integrates MRP II with the information flow across an organization to manage and coordinate the ongoing activities of the enterprise, including product planning, manufacturing and distribution, accounting and finance, sales, human resources, and customer support
Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
A ___allows for storage and management of a company’s documents, such as word processing documents, presentations, and spreadsheets
document management system (DMS)
A ___ enables and manages the publishing, modification, organization, and access of various forms of documents and other files, including media and webpages, on a network or the web
content management system (CMS)
A ___ is an information system that captures and processes data from day-to-day business activities
transaction processing system (TPS)
A ___ is an information system that generates accurate, timely, and organized information, so that managers and other users can make decisions, solve problems, supervise activities, and track progress
management information system (MIS)
A ___ helps users analyze information and make decisions
decision support system (DSS)
An ___ is an information system that captures and stores the knowledge of human experts and then imitates human reasoning and decision making
expert system
the application of human intelligence to computers
AI
AI:
Artificial Intelligence
A back up plan where changes are backed up as they are made
Continuous Backup
specifies the kind of data a field can contain and how the filed is used
data type
or copy, of the entire database should be made on a regular basis
backup
the process of determining the organization of a database
database design
DBMS:
Database management system
helps users analyze information and make decisions
DSS
DSS:
Decision Support System
uniquely identifies each field
Field Name
a listing of activities that modify the contents of the database
Log
an item that contains data, as well as the actions that read or process the data
object
a request for specific data from the database
query
uses logs and or backups and either a roll forward or a rollback technique to restore a database when it becomes damaged or destroyed
Recovery Utility
ensures that users enter only alphabetic data into a field
Alphabetic Check
a relational database refers to a field as an
attribute
a relational database refers to a record as an
tuple
an application that supports a front-end program sometimes is called the
back end
in a roll back also called a ___, the DBMS uses the log to undo any changes made to the database during a certain period
backward recovery
with, ___ the computer collects data over time and processes all transactions later, as a group
Batch Processing
describes the widespread growth of data, the variety of formats in which this data is available and the processing required to make this data accessible in a timely manner
Big Data
BLOB:
Binary Large Object
where users store and share photos, videos, recordings, and other personal media with other registered users
Collaborative Databases
in some tables, the primary key consists of multiple fields called a
composite key
aids in the development and testing of product designs, and often includes CAD
CAE
CAE:
Computer-aided Engineering
controls production equipment, such as drills, lathes, and milling machines
CAM
CAM:
Computer-aided engineering
manages information about customers, past purchases, interests, and the day-to-day interactions, (like phone calls)
CRM
CRM:
Customer Relationship Management
a smaller version of a data warehouse is the
data mart
data warehouses use a process called __ to find patterns and relationships among data
data mining
Is a value that the DBMS initially displays in a field
Default Value
the data in a ___ exists in many separate locations throughout a network or the internet
Distributed Database
could include interest rates, population trends, costs of new housing construction,or raw material pricing
external sources
is an attribute in on e entity that exists in another entity as a primary key
Foreign Key
in a rollfoward also called a __ the DBMS uses the log to reenter changes made to the database since the last save or back up.
forward recovery
a program that generally has a more user-friendly interface than the DBMS
Front End
occurs when a company uses the technology intended for one purpose for another
function creep
GIS:
Geographic Information System
HRIS:
Human Resources Information System
Are a set of logical judgments that are applied to the knowledge base each time a user describes a situation to the expert system
Inference Rules
___ of data might include databases, sales orders, MRP MRPII results, inventory records, financial data etc.
internal sources
MRP:
Material Requirements Planning
MRP II:
Material Requirements Planning II (an extension of I)
because the data dictionary contains details about data, some call it
metadata
A query language used to manipulate and retrieve data
OQL
OQL:
Object Query Language
ORD:
Object Relational Database
OLAP:
Online Analytical Processing
where user’s access privileges are limited to the lowest level necessary to perform required tasks
Principle of least Privilege Policy
reporter writer is also called a
report generator
a data dictionary is sometimes called a
repository
SFA:
Salesforce Automation
consolidates data usually with totals, tables, or graphs, so that managers can review it quick and easily
summary report
A __ check tests data in two or more associated fields to ensure that the relationship is logical and their data is in the correct format
Consistency
Which of the following is not an advantage of a database approach
Requires less memory/ storage
A developer of a relational database refers to a file as a
relation
An __ database stores data in objects
Object-oriented
With __, the computer processes each transaction as it is entered
Online transaction Processing
A __ report usually lists just transactions
detailed
In an expert system, the __ is the combined subject knowledge and experiences of the human expert
knowledge base