Chapter 13- Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI)
The study of computer systems that model and apply the intelligence of the human mind.
Turing Test
A behavioural approach to determining whether a computer system is intelligent.
Weak Equivalence
The equality of two systems based on their results.
Strong Equivalence
The equality of two systems based on their results and the process by which they arrive at those results.
Loebner Prize
The first formal instantiation of the Turing test, held annually
Chatbot
A program designed to carry on a conversation with a human user.
Semantic Network
A knowledge representation technique that represents the relationships among objects .
Search Tree
A structure that represents alternatives in adversarial situations, such as game playing.
Depth-first Approach
Searching down the paths of a tree prior to searching across levels.
Breadth-first Approach
Searching across levels of a tree prior to searching down specific paths.
Knowledge-based System
Software that uses a specific set of information.
Expert System
A software system based on the knowledge of human experts.
Rule-based System
A software system based on a set of if-then rules.
Inference Engine
The software that processes rules to draw conclusions.
Artificial Neural Network
A computer representation of knowledge that attempts to mimic the neural networks of the human body.
Effective Weight
In an artificial neuron, the sum of the weights multiplied by the corresponding input values.
Training
The process of adjusting the weights and threshold values in a neural net to get a desired outcome.
Voice Recognition
Using a computer to recognize the words spoken by a human.
Natural Language Comprehension
Using a computer to apply a meaningful interpretation to human communication.
Voice Synthesis
Using a computer to create the sound of human speech.
Natural Language
Languages that humans use to communicate, such as English.
Phonemes
The set of fundamental sounds made in any given natural language.
Voiceprint
The plot of frequency changes over time representing the sound of human speech.
Lexical Ambiguity
The ambiguity created when words have multiple meanings.
Syntactic Ambiguity
The ambiguity created when sentences can be constructed in various ways.
Referential Ambiguity
The ambiguity created when pronouns could be applied to multiple objects.