Chapter 13: Human Intelligence

Intelligence
The capacity to learn from experience, using metacognitive processes to enhance learning, and the ability to adapt to the surrounding environment
Metacognitiion
our understanding and control of our own thinking processes
Emotional intelligence
“The ability to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in the self and others”
Social intelligence
The ability to understand and interact with other people
Cultural intelligence
A person’s ability to adapt to a variety of challenges in diverse cultures
Galton (1822-1911)
Intelligence is a function of psychophysical abilities
Binet (1857-1911)
-Judgment is the key to intelligence
-Intelligent thought
~Direction
~Adaptation
~Criticism
Stern (1912)
Intelligence quotient (IQ): a ratio of mental age (MA) divided by chronological age (CA), multiplied by 100
Stanford- Binet
Wechsler scales
-Historically, had verbal, performance, and overall scores
-Now follows theorizing in cognitive psychology
~Verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed
Spearman
invented factor analysis
Intelligence—two kinds of factors (spearman)
-“g”, or general factor, believed to be the key to understanding intelligence
-Specific factors with narrow applicability
Core intelligence consists of seven factors (Thurstone)
-Verbal comprehension
-Verbal fluency
-Inductive reasoning
-Spatial visualization
-Number
-Memory
-Perceptual speed
-Cattell-fluid and crystallized intelligence
-Fluid: speed and accuracy of abstract thinking
-Crystallized: accumulated knowledge and vocab
Vernon
practical-mechanical and verbal-educational
Carroll-three strata:
specific, broad, general
Specific
spelling ability, speed of reasoning, etc
Broad
fluid and crystallized, learning and memory processes, visual perception, auditory perception
General
similar to Spearman g
Information Processing and Intelligence
Theorists study how people mentally manipulate what they learn and know about the world
Inspection time
Choice reaction time
The time it takes to select one answer from among several possibilities
Lexical-access speed
-Speed with which we can retrieve information about words stored in LTM
-Measures with letter matching, reaction time task
-AA, Aa, Ab
-Match in name? Match physically? Difference between these two matches in terms of speed for each task indicates measure of lexical access speed
Speed of simultaneous processing
People’s ability to divide their attention (perform math task and listen for a tone)
Critical component to intelligence
The ability to store and manipulate information in working memory may be an important aspect of intelligence
Components
Mental processes used in performing tasks on conventional intelligence tests
Componential analysis
-Breaks down people’s reaction times and error rates (Example: lawyer: client::doctor: (patient or medicine)
-Encode terms of the problem
-Infer relations among at least some of the terms and map the inferred relations to other terms
-Apply previously inferred relations to new situtations
An integrative approach
-Breadth of declarative knowledge
-Breadth of procedural skills
-Capacity of working memory
-Speed of processing
Contextualism
Intelligence understood in real-world context
Culture-fair tests
equally appropriate and fair for members of all cultures
Culture-relevant tests
measure skills and knowledge that relate to the cultural experiences of test-takers
Linguistic intelligence
used in reading a book; writing a paper, a novel, or a poem; and understanding spoken words
logical-matmatical intelligence
used in solving math problems, in balancing a checkbook, in solving a mathematical proof, and in logical reasoning
spatial intelligence
used in getting from one place to another, in reading a map, an in packing suitcases in the trunk of a car so that they all fit into a compact space
musical intelligence
used in singing a song, composing a sonata, playing a trumpet, or even appreciating the structure of a piece of music
bodily-kinesthetic intelligence
used in dancing, playing basketball, running a mile, or throwing a javelin
interpersonal intelligence
used in relating to other people, such as when we try to understand another persons behavior, motives or emotions
intrapersonal intelligence
used in understanding ourselves- the basis for understanding who we are, wehat makes us tick, and how we can change ourselves, given our existing constraints on our abilities and out interests
naturalist intelligence
used in understanding patterns in nature
Eight signs for detecting discrete intelligences
-Potential isolation by brain damage
-Exceptional individuals
-Core operation
-Novice to master
-Evolutionary history
-Cognitive-experimental research
-Evidence from psychometric tests
-Susceptibility to encoding in a symbol system
Sternberg; the triarchic theory
practical, creative, analytical
Three components of information processing:
-Metacomponents
-Performance components
-Knowledge-acquisition components
Intelligence serves three functions in real-world
-Adapting ourselves to our existing environments
-Shaping our existing environments to create new environments
-Selecting new environments
Early childhood factors
-Emotional and verbal responsivity caregiver
-Caregiver’s involvement with the child
-Avoidance of restriction and punishment
-Organization of the physical environment and activity schedule
-Provision of appropriate play materials
-Opportunities for variety in daily stimulation
Six factors in conceptions of wisdom
-Reasoning ability,
-Sagacity (shrewdness)
-Learning from ideas and from the environment
-Judgment
-Expeditious use of information
-Perspicacity
Artificial intelligence
Intelligence in symbol-processing systems such as computers
Alan Turning (1963)
devised a test to determine whether an observer can distinguish the performance of a computer from that of a human