Chapter 15

A technique in which the person is rapidly and intensely exposed to fear-provoking situations or objects and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response is:
modeling.

aversion therapy.

flooding.

systematic desensitization.

flooding.
While treating a child with a fear of swimming, the therapist first approaches the water, then touches the water, then stands in the water waist-deep, and finally floats in the water. The therapist then repeats the steps with the child. This is an example of:
classical conditioning.

aversion therapy.

participant modeling.

reinforcement.

participant modeling.
Kate is trying to quit smoking. Her therapist has her write out and sign a formal agreement that outlines goals, tasks, and penalties to help her change her behavior. It also outlines rewards she will receive as she meets each milestone. Kate has entered into a(n):
participant modeling scenario.

extinction therapy.

contingency contract.

token economy.

contingency contract.
Lithium is a type of _____ drug.
antianxiety

mood stabilizing

antidepressant

antipsychotic

mood stabilizing
Electroconvulsive therapy is still used to treat:
hallucinations.

phobias.

paranoia.

severe depression.

severe depression.
Nora suffers from depression. Her doctor prescribes antidepressant medication. Her doctor is using _____ to treat her.
biological therapy

psychodynamic therapy

psychopharmacology

psychoanalysis

psychopharmacology
Rational-emotive behavioral therapy (REBT) was developed by:
B. F. Skinner.

Albert Ellis.

Sigmund Freud.

Carl Rogers.

Albert Ellis.
Daniel failed a math test. Upon receiving his grade, Daniel believed that he must be bad at math and therefore would fail the class, be unable to get into college, and would have to work in fast food for the rest of his life. Daniel is exhibiting:
selective thinking.

overgeneralization.

magnification and minimization.

arbitrary inference.

overgeneralization.
The word _____ means “a place of safety.”
asylum

empathy

alliance

therapy

asylum
Which of the following is NOT true about self-help/support groups?
The leader of the group has the same problem as the rest of the group members.

A therapist leads the group meetings.

They are free.

They are formed around a particular problem such as alcoholism or drug abuse.

A therapist leads the group meetings.
Which of the following is an advantage of group therapy?
the work of the therapist is essentially done by the other participants

the opportunity for the therapist and the client to observe how the client interacts with others

fostering confrontation for people to transfer their hostilities in a safe environment

forcing shy people to overcome their issues

the opportunity for the therapist and the client to observe how the client interacts with others
An estimated _______ of people feel that psychotherapy has helped them.
75-90 percent

55-70 percent

15-25 percent

35-40 percent

75-90 percent
______ is psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet.
Internet interpretational therapy

IP-centric therapy

Cybertherapy

Technological psychoanalysis

Cybertherapy
Which of the following is a danger of seeking psychological treatment over the Internet?
The long amounts of time a client spends on the computer causes an increase in personality disorders due to lack of interpersonal communication.

The lack of interpersonal communication causes a higher suicide rate for people seeking treatment online.

There is no guarantee that a cybertherapist has any credentials or training in psychotherapy.

The potential for identity theft increases.

There is no guarantee that a cybertherapist has any credentials or training in psychotherapy.
Meredith tells her therapist, Dr. Shepherd, that her mother recently died and she’s been experiencing suicidal thoughts. Dr. Shepherd responds by explaining that he can imagine that she must be feeling angry and abandoned. Dr. Shepherd is displaying ______, a key element in person-centered therapy.
authenticity

empathy

reflection

unconditional positive regard

empathy
Gestalt therapy is a(n) _____ therapy perspective.
nondirective

archaic

averse

directive

directive
Reflection is the technique the therapist must use:
to show genuine openness and honesty and treat the client in a nonjudgmental environment.

to ensure the client is treated in an atmosphere of love, warmth, respect, and affection.

to acknowledge what the clients are feeling and experiencing in order to project understanding.

to allow clients to have insights without the interference of the therapist’s ideas.

to allow clients to have insights without the interference of the therapist’s ideas.
Dr. Aman treats individuals who have phobic disorders by having them relax, then instructing them to visualize the feared object while the intensity of the visualization is gradually increased. All the while, the clients maintain relaxation. Dr. Aman appears to be using the technique called ________.
flooding

aversion therapy

reflection

systematic desensitization

systematic desensitization
As Kenya explained to her therapist the current problems and feelings with which she was dealing, her therapist simply responded by restating to Kenya what he had heard her say, allowing Kenya to gain insight into her own problems. Kenya’s therapist was using which of the following techniques?
transference

authenticity

reflection

empathy

reflection
Many modern-day psychoanalysts are much more _____ than Freud would have been.
cognitive

person-centered

nondirective

directive

directive
Pam has a dream that she’s in the grocery store and can’t find her children. Her therapist uses this actual dream imagery, or ______ content to learn about issues that might be important to Pam. He will first have to take this actual dream scenario and interpret it for its underlying symbols.
transference

directive

manifest

latent

manifest
In the Middle Ages, mental illness was thought to be caused by
demonic possession.

poor nutrition.

bacterial infections.

isolation during childhood.

demonic possession.
Although psychologists have discovered both drug treatments and psychological treatments that are effective in treating anxiety disorders, drug treatments
are not as enduring in their effects as psychological treatments.

are more enduring in their effects than psychological treatments.

do not work as quickly in providing relief from anxiety.

can have fewer negative side effects than psychological treatments.

are not as enduring in their effects as psychological treatments.
Which of the following types of therapy were introduced during the 1960s and 1970s?
humanistic and brain imaging therapies

humanistic and psychodynamic therapies

cognitive and psychoanalytic therapies

cognitive and behavioral therapies

cognitive and behavioral therapies
In the mid-twentieth century, treatments such as _______________ and _______________ were used to treat severe, persistent mental illnesses such as schizophrenia and depression.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); lobotomies

burning; torture

brain imaging and anti-psychotic drugs

isolation; tranquilizer chairs

electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); lobotomies
In the 1950s, scientists discovered ______________, and over time, due to the effectiveness of this treatment, many institutionalized patients were released and treated on an outpatient basis.
anti-psychotic drugs

SSRIs

tranquilizer chairs

cognitive behavioral therapy

anti-psychotic drugs
The success rate of therapy often depends on
the therapist’s level of experience.

the number of times per week the individual attends sessions.

the individual’s personality and how well they get along with their therapist.

whether the individual is willing to take medication as well as undergo therapy.

the individual’s personality and how well they get along with their therapist.
Which of the following therapies focuses on uncovering events, conflicts, and issues that have occurred during a person’s childhood and may be causing conflict in the person’s adult life?
behavior therapy

person-centered therapy

cognitive behavioral therapy

psychoanalysis

psychoanalysis
Humanistic, or person-centered, therapy is characterized by the belief that people
get better after they accept the fact that they must take appropriate medication.

have the ability to change their own mental well-being for the better.

can only get better with the full support of their family members.

can only get better if they submit completely to the therapist.

have the ability to change their own mental well-being for the better.
Prescott has an irrational fear of spiders and has begun working with a therapist to conquer his phobia. His therapist begins a process of desensitization, continually exposing Prescott to spiders until his anxiety eventually lessens. This is an example of
humanistic therapy.

psychodynamic therapy.

behavior therapy.

psychoanalysis.

behavior therapy.
Which of the following types of therapy focuses on unlearning negative thought patterns and making them more positive, essentially reframing how the individual perceives certain situations?
psychodynamic therapy

cognitive behavioral therapy

biomedical therapy

person-centered therapy

cognitive behavioral therapy
Which of the following is true regarding the delivery of cognitive behavioral therapy?
Cognitive behavioral therapy can be delivered in any setting, but it is most effective in groups.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is only effective when delivered in a group setting.

Cognitive behavioral therapy is only effective when delivered in a one-on-one setting.

Cognitive behavioral therapy can be delivered in both one-on-one and group settings.

Cognitive behavioral therapy can be delivered in both one-on-one and group settings.
Which of the following is a goal of cognitive behavioral therapy?
to help the client uncover repressed childhood traumas

to help the client find meaning in his or her life

to help the client learn how to respond differently to his or her emotions

to help the client cut out negative influences in his or her life

to help the client learn how to respond differently to his or her emotions
Cognitive behavioral therapy focuses on the interaction of
thoughts and repressed conflicts in the unconscious mind

culture, biology, and history.

thoughts, feelings (both emotions and physiological sensations), and behavior.

environment, genetics, and emotions.

thoughts, feelings (both emotions and physiological sensations), and behavior.
Psychologists think that low _______________________ causes anxiety sensitivity, which can lead to anxiety disorders.
distress tolerance

desensitization

stress assimilation

testosterone

distress tolerance
How might a psychologist help a patient become more comfortable with sensations associated with panic disorder, such as a racing heart?
by having the patient write down all of the sensations that scare him or her

by engaging the patients in exercises or situations that mimic the sensation, such as running in place, to demonstrate that the sensation is not actually dangerous

by hypnotizing the patient and suggesting that he or she no longer feels these sensations when anxious

by isolating patients and engaging in intense talk therapy until the patient is cured

by engaging the patients in exercises or situations that mimic the sensation, such as running in place, to demonstrate that the sensation is not actually dangerous
Four areas to consider when evaluating whether or not someone needs professional help include distress, dysfunction, danger to themselves or others, and
delusion.

depression.

defense mechanisms.

deviance.

deviance.
When considering distress as factor in deciding whether someone needs professional help, we should consider
how a person’s friends and family perceive their behaviors.

how appropriate a person’s emotional response is to a situation.

whether a person is going to harm him- or herself.

how often a person gets upset about certain situations.

how appropriate a person’s emotional response is to a situation.
Deviance refers to behavior that
falls well outside accepted social norms.

makes other people uncomfortable.

is different on a day-to-day basis.

is too rigid.

falls well outside accepted social norms.
In general, where is the first place a college student should go to seek help for mental health issues on campus?
the campus counseling center

the dean of students

campus police

the admissions office

the campus counseling center
_____________ relates to whether a person can maintain connections with family and friends and to how well the individual can participate in daily activities.
Distress

Deviance

Delusions

Dysfunction

Dysfunction
Mentally ill people began to be confined to
institutions called asylums in:
the mid-1500s
Philippe Pinel became famous for:
demanding that the mentally ill be treated
with kindness, personally unlocking the
chains of inmates in France
action therapy:
psychotherapy in which the
main goal is to change disordered or
inappropriate behavior directly
insight therapies:
psychotherapies in which
the main goal is helping people to gain insight
with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and
feelings
manifest content:
the actual content of one’s
dream
-based on Freud
latent content
the symbolic or hidden meaning of
dreams
free association
Freudian technique in which a
patient is encouraged to talk about anything that
comes to mind without fear of negative evaluations
resistance
occurs when a patient becomes reluctant
to talk about a certain topic, either changing the
subject or becoming silent
transference:
the tendency for a patient or client to
project positive or negative feelings for important
people from the past onto the therapist
Directive:
actively giving interpretations of
a client’s statements in therapy, even
suggesting certain behavior or actions
Person-centered therapy
a nondirective
insight therapy in which the client does all
the talking and the therapist listens
-based on Carl Rogers
nondirective:
therapeutic style in which the
therapist remains relatively neutral and does
not interpret or take direct actions with regard
to the client, instead remaining a calm,
nonjudgmental listener while the client talks
Rogers four elements of Person-centered therapy
authenticity, unconditional positive regard, empathy reflection
authenticity:
the genuine, open, and honest
response of the therapist to the client
unconditional positive regard:
the warmth, respect,
and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist
for the client in person-centered therapy
empathy:
the ability of the therapist to understand
the feelings of the client
reflection:
the therapist restates what the client says
rather than interpreting those statements
Gestalt therapy:
form of directive insight
therapy in which the therapist helps clients
accept all parts of their feelings and
subjective experiences, using leading
questions and planned experiences such
as role-playing
Systematic desensitization:
behavioral
technique used to treat phobias, in which a
client is asked to make a list of ordered
fears and taught to relax while
concentrating on those fears
Aversion therapy:
form of behavioral
therapy in which an undesirable behavior
is paired with an aversive stimulus to
reduce the frequency of the behavior
flooding:
technique for treating phobias and
other stress disorders in which the person is
rapidly and intensely exposed to the fearprovoking
situation or object and prevented
from making the usual avoidance or escape
response
Exposure therapy:
behavioral techniques
that introduce the client to situations
(under carefully controlled conditions) that
are related to their anxieties or fears
Modeling:
learning through the observation
and imitation of others
participant modeling:
technique in which a
model demonstrates the desired behavior in a
step-by-step, gradual process while the client
is encouraged to imitate the model
Behavior therapies:
can be effective in
treating specific problems, such as
bedwetting, drug addictions, and phobias
; can also help improve
some of the more troubling behavioral
symptoms associated with more severe
disorders
Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies Three goals:
Relieve the symptoms and solve the
problems.
Help develop strategies for solving future
problems.
Help change irrational, distorted thinking
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT):
action
therapy in which the goal is to help clients
overcome problems by learning to think
more rationally and logically
Self-help group (support group):
a group
composed of people who have similar
problems and who meet together without a
therapist or counselor for the purpose of
discussion, problem solving, and social
and emotional support
Group therapy is most useful to persons
who:
cannot afford individual therapy, may obtain a great deal of social and
emotional support from other group members
Advantages of Group therapy
low cost
– exposure to other people with similar
problems; social interaction with others
– social and emotional support from people with
similar disorders or problems
Disadvantages of Group therapy
– need to share the therapist’s time with others
in the group
– lack of a private setting in which to reveal
concerns
– inability of people with severe disorders to
tolerate being in a group
Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
– therapeutic alliance: the relationship between
therapist and client that develops as a warm,
caring, accepting relationship characterized
by empathy, mutual respect, and
understanding
– protected setting
– opportunity for catharsis
– learning and practice of new behaviors
– positive experiences for the client
Four barriers to effective psychotherapy
culture-bound values, class-bound values, language, nonverbal communication
antipsychotic drugs:
used to treat psychotic
symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations,
and other bizarre behavior
antianxiety drugs:
used to treat and calm
anxiety reactions
mood-stabilizing drugs:
used to treat bipolar
disorder
ex: include lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs
antidepressant drugs:
used to treat
depression and anxiety