participant modeling scenario.
B. F. Skinner.
magnification and minimization.
The leader of the group has the same problem as the rest of the group members.
A therapist leads the group meetings.
They are free.
They are formed around a particular problem such as alcoholism or drug abuse.
the work of the therapist is essentially done by the other participants
the opportunity for the therapist and the client to observe how the client interacts with others
fostering confrontation for people to transfer their hostilities in a safe environment
forcing shy people to overcome their issues
Internet interpretational therapy
The long amounts of time a client spends on the computer causes an increase in personality disorders due to lack of interpersonal communication.
The lack of interpersonal communication causes a higher suicide rate for people seeking treatment online.
There is no guarantee that a cybertherapist has any credentials or training in psychotherapy.
The potential for identity theft increases.
unconditional positive regard
to show genuine openness and honesty and treat the client in a nonjudgmental environment.
to ensure the client is treated in an atmosphere of love, warmth, respect, and affection.
to acknowledge what the clients are feeling and experiencing in order to project understanding.
to allow clients to have insights without the interference of the therapist’s ideas.
isolation during childhood.
are not as enduring in their effects as psychological treatments.
are more enduring in their effects than psychological treatments.
do not work as quickly in providing relief from anxiety.
can have fewer negative side effects than psychological treatments.
humanistic and brain imaging therapies
humanistic and psychodynamic therapies
cognitive and psychoanalytic therapies
cognitive and behavioral therapies
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT); lobotomies
brain imaging and anti-psychotic drugs
isolation; tranquilizer chairs
cognitive behavioral therapy
the therapist’s level of experience.
the number of times per week the individual attends sessions.
the individual’s personality and how well they get along with their therapist.
whether the individual is willing to take medication as well as undergo therapy.
cognitive behavioral therapy
get better after they accept the fact that they must take appropriate medication.
have the ability to change their own mental well-being for the better.
can only get better with the full support of their family members.
can only get better if they submit completely to the therapist.
cognitive behavioral therapy
Cognitive behavioral therapy can be delivered in any setting, but it is most effective in groups.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is only effective when delivered in a group setting.
Cognitive behavioral therapy is only effective when delivered in a one-on-one setting.
Cognitive behavioral therapy can be delivered in both one-on-one and group settings.
to help the client uncover repressed childhood traumas
to help the client find meaning in his or her life
to help the client learn how to respond differently to his or her emotions
to help the client cut out negative influences in his or her life
thoughts and repressed conflicts in the unconscious mind
culture, biology, and history.
thoughts, feelings (both emotions and physiological sensations), and behavior.
environment, genetics, and emotions.
by having the patient write down all of the sensations that scare him or her
by engaging the patients in exercises or situations that mimic the sensation, such as running in place, to demonstrate that the sensation is not actually dangerous
by hypnotizing the patient and suggesting that he or she no longer feels these sensations when anxious
by isolating patients and engaging in intense talk therapy until the patient is cured
how a person’s friends and family perceive their behaviors.
how appropriate a person’s emotional response is to a situation.
whether a person is going to harm him- or herself.
how often a person gets upset about certain situations.
falls well outside accepted social norms.
makes other people uncomfortable.
is different on a day-to-day basis.
is too rigid.
the campus counseling center
the dean of students
the admissions office
institutions called asylums in:
with kindness, personally unlocking the
chains of inmates in France
main goal is to change disordered or
inappropriate behavior directly
the main goal is helping people to gain insight
with respect to their behavior, thoughts, and
-based on Freud
patient is encouraged to talk about anything that
comes to mind without fear of negative evaluations
to talk about a certain topic, either changing the
subject or becoming silent
project positive or negative feelings for important
people from the past onto the therapist
a client’s statements in therapy, even
suggesting certain behavior or actions
insight therapy in which the client does all
the talking and the therapist listens
-based on Carl Rogers
therapist remains relatively neutral and does
not interpret or take direct actions with regard
to the client, instead remaining a calm,
nonjudgmental listener while the client talks
response of the therapist to the client
and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist
for the client in person-centered therapy
the feelings of the client
rather than interpreting those statements
therapy in which the therapist helps clients
accept all parts of their feelings and
subjective experiences, using leading
questions and planned experiences such
technique used to treat phobias, in which a
client is asked to make a list of ordered
fears and taught to relax while
concentrating on those fears
therapy in which an undesirable behavior
is paired with an aversive stimulus to
reduce the frequency of the behavior
other stress disorders in which the person is
rapidly and intensely exposed to the fearprovoking
situation or object and prevented
from making the usual avoidance or escape
that introduce the client to situations
(under carefully controlled conditions) that
are related to their anxieties or fears
and imitation of others
model demonstrates the desired behavior in a
step-by-step, gradual process while the client
is encouraged to imitate the model
treating specific problems, such as
bedwetting, drug addictions, and phobias
; can also help improve
some of the more troubling behavioral
symptoms associated with more severe
Help develop strategies for solving future
Help change irrational, distorted thinking
therapy in which the goal is to help clients
overcome problems by learning to think
more rationally and logically
composed of people who have similar
problems and who meet together without a
therapist or counselor for the purpose of
discussion, problem solving, and social
and emotional support
emotional support from other group members
– exposure to other people with similar
problems; social interaction with others
– social and emotional support from people with
similar disorders or problems
in the group
– lack of a private setting in which to reveal
– inability of people with severe disorders to
tolerate being in a group
therapist and client that develops as a warm,
caring, accepting relationship characterized
by empathy, mutual respect, and
– protected setting
– opportunity for catharsis
– learning and practice of new behaviors
– positive experiences for the client
symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations,
and other bizarre behavior
ex: include lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs
depression and anxiety