Chapter 22 Human Growth

T/F: Most employers consider the psychosocial needs of their workers.
False
T/F: The “Big Five” refers to the five years following an adult’s 40th birthday.
False
T/F: As adults age, sibling relationships tend to become closer.
True
T/F: Maslow linked chronological age to adult development on his hierarchy of needs.
False
T/F: According to a study of twins living in Denmark, twins are less apt to get married than single-born adults.
True
T/F: As adults age, their friendships tend to stagnate.
False
T/F: Introversion is a proposed sixth personality dimension that may be added to the Big Five.
False
T/F: Adequate income is not correlated with marital satisfaction.
False
T/F: The intrinsic rewards of work often result in less absenteeism and job change.
True
T/F: Consequential strangers are people who have no impact on a person’s life.
False
T/F: Though it may be painful if they are later separated, a loving bond is best for both foster parents and foster children.
True
T/F: The group of people who move through life with an individual providing protection and encouragement is his or her social convoy.
True
T/F: Most adoptions today are open adoptions; that is, the adopted child is aware that the biological mother released him or her to the adoptive parents.
True
T/F: Today’s workers change jobs more often than did workers of the past because resignations, firings, and hirings occur more often.
True
T/F: Since Donato and Gemma’s children have moved away and started their own families, their home is now an “empty nest.”
True
Getting married, having children, and living in separate residences increases the likelihood of _____ sibling relationships in adulthood.

A. improving
B. straining
C. ambivalent
D. ending

A
The group of people that moves through life with an individual while providing both protection and encouragement is called a _____.

A. familial collection
B. social envoy
C. fictive kin
D. support network

B
What might an older adult in the workplace perceive as a micro-aggression?

A. “You must be having a senior moment.”
B. “Can you hand me my coffee mug?”
C. “We appreciate your years of service.”
D. “You have the most institutional knowledge in the office.”

A
Those who know her describe Matilda as a kind, helpful, and easygoing person. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?

A. agreeableness
B. neuroticism
C. openness
D. conscientiousness

A
Current objective research data from a large, randomly selected sample of same-sex partners is _____.

A. not yet available
B. available for specific areas in the United States
C. inconclusive about trends
D. available for indicators dealing with income and career status only

A
Davetta is very organized and self-disciplined. She conforms easily to standards set for her performance at work. She is high on which of the Big Five traits?

A. agreeableness
B. openness
C. conscientiousness
D. extroversion

C
A long-term committed partnership correlates with health and happiness throughout adulthood and late adulthood. For most people, then, _____ is the crucial aspect of love in a partnership.

A. intimacy
B. infatuation
C. commitment
D. passion

C
After a recent divorce, Cheryl is entering the workforce after many years off. As a single parent with three children, she needs a livable wage, good benefits, and a retirement plan. She is focused on the _____ of work.

A. intrinsic rewards
B. self-fulfilling prophecy
C. extrinsic rewards
D. secondary gains

C
Which is NOT one of the Big Five personality traits?

A. selflessness
B. openness
C. extroversion
D. agreeableness

A
A man who changes jobs frequently, moves often, and always seems happier because of such changes is likely to be high in _____.

A. conscientiousness
B. openness
C. neuroticism
D. extroversion

B
All of Paulo and Geneva’s children have moved out, started families, and are working on their careers. According to the text, Paulo and Geneva’s home is now a(n) _____.

A. haven of quiet
B. empty nest
C. lonely cavern
D. house of mirrors

B
Chris is high in extroversion and therefore will probably _____.

A. be likely to get a divorce
B. have a life that is in constant flux
C. become a librarian or a safety inspector
D. get married

D
In a typical family, the kinkeeper is MOST apt to be _____.

A. a young adult son
B. a middle-aged father
C. the first grandchild
D. a middle-aged mother

D
According to Erikson, the developmental crisis that occurs after intimacy versus isolation is _____.

A. initiative versus guilt
B. identity versus role confusion
C. generativity versus stagnation
D. integrity versus despair

C
Within the workplace, for example, there are small things that go unnoticed by the majority person that seem aggressive to the minority person. These have been referred to as _____.

A. micro-agressions
B. micro-attacks
C. micro-demands
D. micro-bursts

A
T/F: About half of all employees in the United States work a traditional 9-to-5 work schedule.
True
T/F: Raises and bonuses at work do not seem to increase employee motivation.
False
T/F: Most people underestimate the difficulty of parenting.
True
T/F: Remarriages are less likely to end in divorce than are first marriages.
False
T/F: As adults grow older, job changes become less stressful.
False
T/F: A way that adults can be generative is by caregiving.
True
T/F: Extrinsic rewards of work include pride in a job well done and friendship at the workplace.
False
T/F: Most kinkeepers are middle-aged women.
True
T/F: Micro-aggressions may go unnoticed by those in the majority.
True
T/F: Fictive kin are people accepted as part of a family without having biological or marital ties to that family.
True
T/F: Weekend work, especially with mandatory overtime, is particularly difficult for father-child relationships.
True
According to a recent study, what percentage of the U.S. labor force is female?

A. 25
B. 47
C. 83
D. 90

B
After nearly 20 years with his company, Mike’s job was outsourced. He wants his new job to offer not only a good wage but also job satisfaction and a sense of accomplishment. He is focused on the _____ of work.

A. status
B. extrinsic rewards
C. secondary gains
D. intrinsic rewards

D
Manuel and Rosa have been married for nearly 30 years. Their youngest child left home six months ago. If they are typical, the quality of their marriage should _____.

A. remain constant, no different than earlier years
B. worsen since there are no children to act as buffers
C. be tumultuous since they had grown apart over the years
D. improve since they have more time to spend together

D
As people age, their friendships tend to _____.

A. dissipate
B. fade
C. stagnate
D. improve

D
Of adults born before 1940, what percentage got married?

A. 10
B. 33
C. 50
D. 96

D
After the children are grown, most married couples _____.

A. spend longer hours at work
B. dislike being “empty-nesters”
C. have adequate time for their relationship
D. see little of each other

C
Sam and Claire are in their 80s. They consistently vote against any member of Congress who may cut their Medicare benefits. At the same time, they do not want Medicare benefits extended to members of younger generations because they fear that doing so will bankrupt the nation. The reason they think this way is MOST likely due to their _____.

A. selfishness
B. risk aversion
C. dementia
D. familism

B
Adults choose their _____ by selecting neighborhoods, mates, hobbies, and careers at least in part based on their personality traits.

A. ecological niche
B. kinkeeper
C. Big 5
D. social convoy

A
A study of 7,578 adults in seven nations found that physical separation between parents and adult children _____.

A. weakened family ties
B. created conflict between parents and the adult children
C. strengthened the relationships between parents and adult children
D. caused parents to spend more time and resources supporting adult children

C
According to research, which statement about the “sandwich generation” is TRUE?

A. Many adults do not feel burdened by their responsibilities.
B. It describes the reality of most middle-aged adult women’s lives
C. It conveys the financial strain adults often experience when caring for elderly parents.
D. It communicates the degree to which older adults care for their younger kin.

A
T/F: Gay, lesbian, and heterosexual couples can all be supportive and destructive.
True
T/F: For remarried fathers, bonds with their new stepchildren or with a new baby may replace strained relationships with their children from a prior marriage.
True
T/F: According to Erikson, the search for identity is complete at the end of the stage of identity versus role confusion.
False
T/F: Whether an individual ranks high or low in each of the Big Five personality traits depends solely on heredity.
False
With increasing age, the trait of neuroticism tends to _____.

A. transform into extroversion
B. increase
C. decrease
D. remain stable

C
How has the Internet impacted friendships and relationships with consequential strangers?

A. It has strengthened close friendships and decreased the number of consequential strangers.
B. It has weakened friendships and decreased the number of consequential strangers.
C. It has weakened friendships and increased the number of consequential strangers.
D. It has strengthened friendships and increased the number of consequential strangers.

D
The theorist who proposed the idea that individuals continue to develop into adulthood was _____.

A. Freud
B. Erikson
C. Skinner
D. Vygotsky

B
The youngest of Zach and Tuila’s three children has just started kindergarten. They have had to change their morning and bedtime routines, child care arrangements, discipline practices, and the family’s income has suffered as a result of this shift, yet Zach and Tuila are happy to make these changes for their children. These changes reflect the fact that _____.

A. Zach and Tuila do not know enough about parenting
B. their children must be especially difficult
C. Zach and Tuila are trying too hard to please their children
Zach and Tuila are demonstrating generativity

D
People choose a particular lifestyle and social context, or _____, because it is compatible with their personality traits.

A. ecological niche
B. environmental fit
C. adult community
D. adaptable environment

A
Secure bonds can develop between a child and an adoptive parent when the children are older (ages 4 to 7), especially if the mother had a(n) _____ attachment to her own mother.

A. secure
B. anxious-resistant
C. anxious-avoidant
D. disorganized

A
Although Erikson’s stages of psychosocial development are sequential, the search for identity that begins in the stage of identity versus role confusion _____.

A. is ongoing throughout adulthood
B. ends with the stage of intimacy versus isolation
C. ends with the stage of generativity versus stagnation
D. comes to fruition only after the stage of integrity versus despair

A
Rates of remarriage are highest for those who _____.

A. have infants
B. have teenage children
C. are of the lowest SES
D. have the most education

D
With regard to paid work, older employees tend to have _____ compared to younger employees.

A. less absenteeism
B. more problems with lateness
C. less job commitment
D. more extrinsic motivation

A
When Rob graduated from college, he found a good job, a nice apartment, and made new friends. Now, three years later, he has been laid off from his work and he has moved back into his parents’ home. Statistically, Rob will likely _____.

A. feel comfortable staying with his parents
B. feel uncomfortable staying with his parents
C. report tension in his relationship with his parents
D. find that his parents are more nurturing

A
T/F: Today’s workers change jobs more often than did workers of the past because resignations, firings, and hirings occur more often.
True
T/F: Divorce often weakens or destroys family bonds beyond that of the spousal relationship.
True
T/F: Most adults do not seek long-term romantic partners.
False
T/F: A typical adult becomes a little less neurotic and open and a little more agreeable and conscientious with age.
True
What proportion of all first marriages end in divorce?

A. one-eighth
B. one-third
C. two-thirds
D. three-quarters

B
Jeremy was reared in several foster homes and never knew his parents. When he started working with Kent, he became close to Kent’s family to the point where they fondly referred to him as “our newfound son.” The family has “adopted” Jeremy as _____.

A. surrogate sibling
B. foster son
C. kindred brother
D. fictive kin

D
An acquaintance who is not a friend but still has an impact on an adult’s life is called a(n) _____.

A. social convoy
B. kinkeeper
C. consequential stranger
D. fictive kin

C
According to Erikson, when individuals are productive in an unselfish and caring way, they are demonstrating _____.

A. autonomy
B. generativity
C. diffusion
D. altruism

B
What is one of Erikson’s stages of adulthood?

A. trust versus mistrust
B. initiative versus guilt
C. generativity versus stagnation
D. industry versus inferiority

C
The primary form that generativity takes is _____.

A. being guided by the younger generation
B. establishing and guiding the next generation
C. belonging to a religious organization
D. volunteering in the community

B
When a factory closed, Benito lost his job of 20 years. He is 39 years old. Finding a new job will be stressful because _____.

A. he will absolutely have to relocate his family
B. employers rarely hire people of his age
C. he cannot learn new skills
D. it may not offer equal pay or benefits

D
People who are not in a person’s closest convoy but who still have an effect on the person’s life by providing information, support, or new ideas are known as _____.

A. intimate strangers
B. intimate friends
C. consequential strangers
D. consequential friends

C
Lena and Gregory are both 30 years old and hold graduate degrees. They are about to get married. They will be all of the following compared to their never-married counterparts EXCEPT for _____.

A. richer
B. happier
C. healthier
D. calmer

D
What percentage of the workplace is made up of immigrant workers?

A. 3
B. 15
C. 20
D. 25

C
T/F: Personality traits are exhibited the same in all contexts.
False
T/F: Since Dorothea is caring for her teenage children and her elderly parents, she is a member of the sandwich generation.
True
T/F: Consequential strangers are people who have no impact on a person’s life.
False
According to Erikson, an adult’s failure to achieve generativity results in _____.

A. intermittent feelings of loneliness
B. stagnation and personal impoverishment
C. childlessness and depression
D. difficulties in mate selection or friendship

B
People tend to display their wealth as a way of asserting their _____.

A. independence
B. mood
C. status
D. job

C
Approximately what proportion of divorces terminates an abusive or destructive relationship?

A. one-quarter
B. one-third
C. one-half
D. three-quarters

B
Which statement about middle age is TRUE?

A. It is a time of severe emotional crisis.
B. There are very few changes at midlife.
C. Changes do not necessarily cluster around age 40.
D. It always begins at age 40.

C
In the United States, about _____ of employees work a traditional work schedule.

A. a quarter
B. a third
C. half
D. three-quarters

C
Statistically, who is likely to have the MOST stable personality?

A. a 5-year-old boy
B. a 14-year-old girl
C. a 23-year-old man
D. a 35-year-old woman

D
Couples who cohabit due to convenience are _____.

A. as happy as couples who cohabit with the intent to marry
B. happier than couples who marry
C. said to be “living apart together”
D. less likely to have a happy marriage

D
Susan’s grandmother, at age 80, is engaged in the personal journey of connecting her life with the historical and cultural purpose of human society. The grandmother is in which of Erikson’s psychosocial stages?

A. identity versus role confusion
B. industry versus inferiority
C. generativity versus stagnation
D. integrity versus despair

D
Which personality trait tends to increase with age?

A. extroversion
B. openness
C. agreeableness
D. neuroticism

C
T/F: A good indication of family closeness is whether family members live with one another, close to one another, or distant from one another.
False
How do consequential strangers differ from friends?

A. They include people from a wider variety of faiths, ethnic groups, ages, and political opinions.
B. They include only people of the same religion, ethnic group, age, or political opinion.
C. They do not play a role in a person’s daily life activities.
D. Unlike a friend, consequential strangers know nothing about a person

A
Which statement about personality is accurate?

A. There is only empirical evidence that personality is innate.
B. Genes are the only influence on adult personality.
C. Adult personality can be influenced by context.
D. Geography does not influence adult personality.

C
People in Maslow’s third level on the hierarchy of needs seek _____.

A. self-actualization
B. safety
C. generativity
D. love and belonging

D
After children have grown, MOST couples find that _____.

A. their financial strains are overwhelming
B. their relationships improve
C. there are more fights over equity in domestic work
D. less time is spent in shared activities

B
Employment is _____ adult psychosocial health.

A. absolutely necessary for
B. not a key part of
C. one factor contributing to
D. rarely a positive contributor to

C
Approximately what proportion of adults in North America become stepparents, foster parents, or adoptive parents?

A. one-eighth
B. one-fourth
C. one-third
D. one-half

C
Research has shown that the _____—a period of unusual anxiety, reexamination, and transformation during middle adulthood—has more to do with historical circumstances than actual age.

A. cohort bridge
B. ecological niche
C. gender trajectory
D. midlife crisis

D
How many stages of development did Abraham Maslow describe?

A. three
B. five
C. seven
D. 10

B