Chapter 3 IT100

Blogs (weblogs)
A personal log or journal posted on the Web.
Bookmarks
A feature in some browsers that places a marker of a Web Site’s Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in an easily retrievable list. (AKA Favorites in IE)
Broadband
A high-speed Internet connection such as cable, satellite, or digital subscriber line (DSL).
DSL
A type of high-speed Internet connection (Broadband) which uses telephone lines to connect to the Internet and that allows both phone and data transmissions to share the same line.
Fiber-Optic Service (FiOS)
Internet access that is enabled by transmitting data at the speed of light through glass or plastic fibers.
Hyperlink
A type of specially coded text that, when clicked, enables a user to jump from one location, or Web page, to another within a Web site or to another Web site altogether.
Instant Messaging (IM)
A program that enables users to communicate online in real time with others who are also online.
Keyword
(1) A specified word a user wishes to query (or look for) in an Internet search. (2) A specific word that has a predefined meaning in a particular programming language.
Podcast
A clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet using compressed audio or video files to formats such as MP3.
Search Engine
A set of programs that searches the Web for specific words (or Keywords) you wish to query (or look for) and then returns a list of the Web sites on which those keywords are found.
Social Bookmark (Tag)
A keyword or term that Internet uses assign to a Web resources such as a Web page, digital image, or video.
Social Networking
A means by which people use the Internet to communicate and share information among their immediate friends, and meet and connect with others through common interests, experiences, and friends.
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
A Web site’s unique address, an example is fork.com
Web 2.0
Web-based tools and services that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among users.
Web Browser
Software installed on a computer system that allows individuals to locate, view, and navigate the Web.
WiFi (Wireless Fidelity)
The 802.11 standard for wireless data transmissions established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
Wiki
A type of Web site that allows anyone visiting the site to change its content by adding, removing, or editing the content.
Which is NOT true about the Internet?
It was developed as a method for linking research documents.
What do you need to read, send, and organize E-mail from any computer?
A Web-based E-mail account.
Which is an example of Web 2.0 technology?
Blogging
In which way is a blog different from a wiki?
Blogs are written by a single user.
Which is true about plug-ins?
Plug-ins can present security risks.
What feature is a list of pages you’ve visited within a Web site?
Breadcrumb trail
Which is NOT part of a search engine?
A subject directory.
When using the Internet for research, you…
Should evaluate sites for bias and relevance.
Which connection type provides the fastest data transmission?
Fiber-Optic
What current program funds the research and development of cutting-edge networking and wireless technologies?
Large scale networking (LSN)
The information in e-mail is no more private than a postcard.
True
Consumers buy books, movie tickets, and games more often online than in retail stores.
True
The VeriSign seal on a Web site guarantees that the Web site is secure.
False
Each time you connect to the Internet, your computer is assigned the same IP address.
False
Internet connection speeds vary by neighborhood, sometimes exceeding advertised rates.
True
Internet
The largest computer network in the world.
World Wide Web (WWW)
Is distinguished from the rest of the Internet by 1) common communication protocols that enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible formats, and 2) special links that enable users to navigate from one place to another on the Web.
ARPANET
The birth of the Today’s Internet– Advanced Research Projects Agency Network–began as a four-node network involving UCLA, Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara, and the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf are known as the “fathers” of the Internet.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
Means of synchronous group communications used in discussion forums.
Newsgroup
A method of communication, similar to a discussion group or forum, in which people create threads, or conversations. In a thread, a newsgroup member will post messages and read and reply to messages from other members of the newsgroup.
Netiquette
The general rules of etiquette for Internet chat rooms and other online communication.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
An XML-based format that allows frequent updates on the World Wide Web.
Aggregator
A software program that goes out and grabs the latest updates of Web material (usually podcasts) according to your specifications.
Webcast
The broadcast of audio or video content over the Internet. Unlike a podcast, a webcast is not updated automatically. Most webcasts are live or on-time events.
MMORPGs
Massive multiplayer online role-play games. WoW.
Plug-in
A small software program that “plugs in” to a Web browser to enable a specific function–for example, to view and hear certain multimedia files on the Web.
E-commerce (Electric commerce)
The process of conducting business online for purposes ranging from fund-raising to advertising to selling products.
Business-to-consumer (B2C)
Exchanges that take place between businesses and consumers.
Business-to-business (B2B)
This consists of businesses buying and selling goods and services to other businesses.
Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
Consists of consumers selling to each other through online auction and exchange sites such as eBay and Craigslist.
Domain name
A part of a URL. Domain names consist of two parts: the site’s host and a suffix that indicates the type of organization.
HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
The protocol that allows files to be transferred from a Web server so that you can see them on your computer by using a browser.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A protocol used to upload and download files from one computer to another over the Internet.
Host
The portion of a domain name that identifies who maintains a given Web site.
Top-level domain (TLD)
The suffix, often of three letters, in the domain name (such the kind of organization the host is.
Path (subdirectory)
The information after the slash in a file name indicates a particular file or path (or subdirectory) within the Web site.
Breadcrumb trail
A list that shows the hierarchy of previously viewed Web pages within the Web site that youic are currently viewing.
Search Engine
Is a set of programs that searches keywords and then returns a list of the Web sites which those keywords are found.
Subject Directory
A structured outline of Web sites organized by topics and subtopics.
Metasearch Engine
An Internet search engine, such as Dogpile, searches other search engines rather than individual Web sites.
Spider
A program that constantly collects information on the Web, following links in Web sites and reading Web pages. Spiders get their name because they crawl over the Web using multiple “legs” to visit many sites simultaneously.
Indexer program
Is the second part of a search engine which organizes the data into a large database.
Search engine software
Is the third part of a search engine. The software searches the indexed data, pulling out relevant information according to your search.
Algorithm
The formula which formulate the search and create the resulting index of related sites.
Boolean operators
Are words such as AND, NOT, and OR the describe the relationships between keywords in a search.
Google Scholar
Searches scholarly literature such as peer-reviewed papers, theses, and publications from academic organizations.
Client
A computer the requests information from a server in a client/server network.
Server
A computer that provides resources to other computers on a network.
Internet backbones
The main pathway of high-speed communication lines over which all Internet traffic flows.
Internet protocol address (IP address)
The means by which all computers connected to the Internet identify each other. It consists of 4 sets of unique numbers separated by dots.
Dial-up connection
Hell. Internet connection using standard telephone line.
Network interface card (NIC)
An expansion card that enables other computers to connect other computers or to a cable modem to facilitate a high-speed Internet connection.
Aircard
A device that enables users to have wireless Internet access with mobile devices such as PDAs and notebooks.
Express card slot
The slot on the side of a notebook that fit an Aircard.
Dial-up modem
A device that converts (modulates) the digital signals the computer understands to analog signals that can travel over phone lines. The computer on the other end also must have a modem to translate (demodulate) the received analog signal that the receiving computer can understand.
Data transfer rate (bandwidth)
The max speed at which data can be transmitted between two nodes on a network; usually measured in megabits per second (Mpbs)
What is the origin of the Internet?
Government and military officials developed the early Internet as a reliable way to communicate in the event of a war. Eventually scientists and educators used it to exchange research. Today we use it to talk about how much we hate our friends and to look at porn.
How can I communicate through the Internet?
By IM, e-mail, message boards, forums, newsgroups, and social networking sites.
How can I communicate and collaborate using Web 2.0 technologies?
By using blogs, video logs, wikis, and social networking sites.
What are the various kinds of multimedia files found on the Web, and what software do I need to use them?
Multimedia is anything that involves one or more forms of media in addition to text, such as graphics, audio, and video clips. Most of the time you you will need to download and install a special software called a plug-in to view or hear multimedia files.
What is e-commerce, and what e-commerce safeguards protect me when I’m online?
It’s a business of conducting business online. VeriSign is a safeguard.
What is a Web browser, and what is URL and what are its parts?
A Web browser is a software program that allows users to view the Web. A URL is composed of a protocol, the domain, the top-level domain, and paths.
How can I use hyperlinks and other tools to get around the Web?
You click on them. You can also use the Back and Forward buttons, the History lists, and Bookmarks to navigate the Web.
How do I search the Internet effectively, and how can I evaluate Web sites?
By using your brain.
How does data travel on the Internet?
A computer connected to the Internet acts as either a client or a server. Data travels between clients and servers along a system of communication lines or pathways. The largest and fastest of these pathways is the Internet backbone. To ensure that data is sent to the correct computer, each computer is assigned an IP address.
What are my options for connecting to the Internet?
Dial-up (f*ck no), or broadband such as DSL, cable, or FiOS. Satellite is also an option for those who do not have access to faster broadband technologies. WiFi allows users to connect wireless, but not as fast as a wired connection.