Chapter 6

True
(T/F) The internet is essential because it’s flexible, shares resources, allows geographic dispersement of employees, and links businesses with customers and suppliers.
Network Neutrality
Concept that ISPs must allow computers equal access to content and applications regardless of the source or nature of the content
False
(T/F)ISPs want net neutrality because it allows them to charge different prices to individuals based on internet usage
True
(T/F) Computers don’t work in isolation, data exchange provides advantages, data exchange can take place over great distances
Computer network
A system that connects computers and other devices via communications media so that data and information can be transmitted among them
False
(T/F) Voice and data communications are becoming slower and more expensive
Bandwidth
Refers to the transmission capacity of a network; it is stated in bits per second
Broadband
Refers to network transmission capacities ranging from approximately 1 million bits per second to 20 megabits with fiber to home.
True
(T/F) In a computer network, connected computers: work together, are interdependent, and exchange data with each other
PAN LAN MAN WAN
The four types of networks from smallest to largest are ____, _____, _____, ____. (Acronyms)
Personal area network
PAN is the acronym for _____.
Local area network
LAN is the acronym for _____.
Metropolitan area network
MAN is the acronym for _____.
Wide area network
WAN is the acronym for ______.
WAN
The internet is a _____ network (acronym)
Local area network
Connects two or more devices in a limited geographical region so that every device on the network can communicate with each other
Network interface card
Every device on a LAN has one of these which allows that device to physically connect to the LAN’s communication medium
True
(T/F) LANs often have a file server or network server that contains various software and data for the network
WAN
Typically contains multiple LANs
WAN
_____ are provided by common carriers like a telephone companies
True
(T/F) WANs have a large capacity and typically combine multiple channels (fiber-optic, microwave, satellite)
True
(T/F) The internet is a WAN
Routers
WANs contain ______ which are communication processors that route messages from a LAN to the internet, across several connected LANs, or across a WAN
Enterprise network
Consists of multiple LANs and WANs that are interconnected
Backbone network
High-speed central networks to which multiple smaller networks connect
MAN
A large computer network usually spanning a city (acronym)
PAN (Personal area network)
A very small computer network within 10 meters of a person’s space (acronym)
Analog signals
Continuous waves that transmit information by altering the characteristics of the waves
Digital signals
Discrete pulses that are either on or off, representing a series of bits (0s and 1s)
Modems
Convert digital signals to analog signals and analog signals to digital signals
Modulation
Converting digital signals to analog signals
Demodulation
Converting analog signals to digital signals
Dial-up
Must convert digital signals into analog, transmission speeds up to 56kbps i.e. SLOW
Cable
Provider operates over a coaxial cable, transmission speeds between 1 and 6 mbps for downloads and 128-768 for uploads
Downloading
Which is faster downloading or uploading
DSL (digital subscriber line)
Provider operates on the same lines as telephones and dial-up modems, always available internet
Cable
Uses physical wires or cables to transmit data and information
Twisted-pair wiring
The prevalent form of communication wiring; strands of copper wiring twisted in pairs
Twisted-pair wiring
Inexpensive to purchase, widely available and easy to work with are advantages of _____.
Twisted-pair wiring
Slow for transmitting data, subject to interference from other electrical sources, easily tapped by others are disadvantages of _______
Coaxial Cable
Consists of insulated copper wires
Coaxial Cable
Much less susceptible to electrical interference, and can carry more data are advantages of _____.
Coaxial Cable
More expensive, more difficult to work with, and somewhat inflexible are disadvantages of _____.
Fiber-optic cables
Consist of thousands of very thin filaments of glass fibers that transmit information via light pulses generated by lasers
Fiber-optic cables
Typically used as the backbone for a network
Fiber-optic cables
Significantly smaller and lighter than other mediums, can transmit more data, and provides greater security for data are advantages of _____.
Digital subscriber line
A high-speed digital transmission technology using existing analog telephone lines
Asynchronous Transfer mode
Data transmission technology that uses packet switching and allows for almost unlimited bandwidth on demand
Synchronous Optical Network
An interface standard for transporting digital signals over fiber optic lines that allows users to integrate transmissions from multiple vendors
T-carrier systems
High-powered digital transmission system that defines circuits that operate at different rates, all of which are multiples of the basic 64 kbps user to transport a single voice call
Protocol
The set of rules or procedures governing transmission across a network
Ethernet
A common LAN protocol
Transmission control protocol/Internet protocol
(TCP/IP) is a file transfer protocol that can send large files across sometimes unreliable networks (Internet) with assurance that the data will arrive uncorrupted; 3 basic functions
Packets
One of the TCP/IP functions; managing the movement of _____ between computers by establishing a connection between the computers
Sequences
One of the TCP/IP functions; ____ the transfer of packets
Acknowledges
One of the TCP/IP functions; _____ the packets that have been transferred
Internet protocol
Responsible for disassembling, delivering, and reassembling the data during transmission
Application Transport Internet Network interface
The four layers of TCP/IP are 1.)______, 2.)_______=> provides communication ability, 3.)_______ => addressing and routing, 4.)______=> sends to/from the network
Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)
Defines how messages are formulated and how they are interpreted by the receiver
Packet switching
Transmission technology that breaks-up blocks of data into packets
Client/server computing
Links 2 or more computers in an arrangement in which some machines (servers) provide computing services for user PC’s (clients)
Peer-to-peer processing
A type of Client/server distributed processing where each computer acts as both a client and a server ex: Napster There are 3 types
First type
______ Peer-to-peer processing accesses unused CPU power among networked computers
Second type
______ Peer-to-peer processing is real time person to person collaboration
Third type
_______ Peer-to-peer processing is open source free peer to peer file-sharing
Network Topology
Refers to the geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers and other network devices in a network
Bus
All devices are connected to a central cable called a ____; ____ networks are relatively inexpensive and easy to install for small networks (SAME word for both blanks)
Star
All devices are connected to a central device called a hub. _____ networks are relatively easy to install and manage but bottlenecks can occur because all the data must pass through the hub
Ring
All devices are connected to one another in the shape of a closed loop, so that each device is connected directly to two other devices. _____ topologies are relatively expensive, difficult to install, but they offer high bandwidth and can span large distances
Hybrids
Groups of star-configured workstations are connected to a linear bus backbone cable, combining the characteristics of the bus and star topologies
Wireless
Devices are connected by a receiver/transmitter to a special network interface card that transmits signals between a computer and server, all within an acceptable transmission range
Internet
A global WAN that connects approximately 1 million organizational computer networks in more than 200 countries on all continents and plays a role in the daily routine of almost 2 billion people
Intranet
A restricted network that relies on Internet technologies to provide an Internet-like environment within the company for information sharing, communications, collaboration, web-publishing, and the support of the business process
Extranet
An extension of an intranet that is only available to authorized outsiders such as customers, partners, and suppliers; kind of public/private
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
Companies can establish direct private network links among themselves or create private, secure Internet access, in effect a “private tunnel” within the Internet
VPN
____ are important because with security on the rise, keeping electronic records safe is an area of concern for many businesses
Internet service provider (ISP)
A company that offers internet connection for a fee
Network Access points (NAPs)
Exchange points for Internet traffic; Determine how traffic is routed, internet backbone
Network Access points (NAPs)
Internet Kiosks, Dial-up, DSL, Cable Modem, Satellite, Wireless, FIber to the home; are all examples of ____
Internet Protocol (IP) address
Assigned address assigned to every computer that distinguishes it from all other computers; IPv4 = 4 part 32 bits, IPv6 = 128 bits used due to increasing # of devices
Domain Name
Consists of multiple parts separated by dots which are read from right to left
Top-level domain
The right most part of an Internet name; ex: .com, .gov, .edu
Name of the Company
The main portion/ middle of the Internet name
World wide web
A system of universally accepted standards for storing, retrieving, formatting, and displaying information via a client/server architecture; not the same thing as the internet
Home page
A text and graphical screen display that usually welcomes the user and explains the organization that has established the page
Uniform resource locator
The set of letters that represent a resource on the web that points to the address of a specific resource on the web
Discovery
Allows users to browse and search data sources in all topic areas on the Web.
Search engines
Are computer programs that are used to search for specific information by keywords and then report the results; The largest are Google, Yahoo, Bing, Baidu
Metasearch engines
These search several search engines at once and integrate the findings of the various search engines to answer queries posted by the user
Portal
A web-based personalized gateway to information and knowledge that provides relevant information from different IT systems and the Internet using advanced search and indexing techniques
Commercial (public) portals
Offer content for diverse communities and are most popular portals on the Internet
Affinity portals
Support communities such as a hobby group or political party
Mobile portals
Are portals accessible from mobile devices
Corporate portals
Portals that offer a personalized single point of access through a web browser
Industrywide portals
Portals that support entire industries