Chapter 6

Internet
Also known as the net, is a global computer network made up of thousands of privately and publicly owned computers and networks. It started in the 1960s with the U.S. Defense Department called ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network.
Internet Backbone
The main high-speed routes through which data travels. Maintained by NSP (network service providers), like AT&T.
Interoperability
Where the Internet provides ability for computers to exchange data regardless of brand, model, or operating system the computers are running.
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)
A suite of protocols which supply standard methods of packaging and transmitting information on the Internet are responsible for enabling interoperability. TCP manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet, while the IP (The lower layer) handles the address part of each packet so it gets to the right destination.
Internet Service Providers
is a company that traditionally provided access to the Internet and no additional services.
Hot Spot
a public location like an airport, coffee shop, or campus, that provides Internet access for devices fitted with wireless technology.
Dial-up Access
Uses a phone jack, downside is the speed, slowest of all Internet services but cheapest.
DSL (Digital subscriber line)
Faster than dial-up, making use of phone lines with special modem. Only drawback is that service does not extend more than a few miles from the Central Office. One of the popular connections.
Cable Access
Online connections provided by TV cable companies. Can surpass DSL speeds, no phone line needed but a cable modem is required. Other popular connection.
Satellite Access
for users out of DSL and cable service areas like the desert. More costly than cable or DSL.
Fiber-optic service
Lines that run directly to the home provide users with fast Internet, surpasses other methods like DSL and Cable as far as Speed.
Cheapest to most Expensive Access
Dial-up< DSL
Cheapest to most Expensive Access
Dial-up< DSL
World Wide Web (WWW)
a portion of the Internet that contains billions of documents. Internet is physical connection of millions of networks, like an interstate, where the it’s uses the Internet as transport to distribute its collection of documents, called Web pages.
Web Pages
Documents of the web, transported over the Internet
Web Browser
A program on your computer that displays a web document by HTML.
Web Site
collection of related Web pages.
Hyperlinks
Also called Links, elements in an electronic document that act as a connector to another place in the same document or to an entirely different document.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
a language that uses a tag system of code to create web pages.
Web 2.0
The current generation of the web, takes the concept further by providing more opportunities for individuals to collaborate, interact with one another, and create new content by using blogs, wikis, and podcasts.
Dead Links
also known as broken link, are links to documents that have disappeared.
What is the most common browser? What is the CON?
Internet Explorer
Popularity of Browsers from least to most
Chrome < Firefox < Internet Explorer
Plug-ins
which are additional software programs, that extend ability of browser, usually to enable multimedia features.
Browser Cache
When you browse a Web page for the first time, the page is stored on your hard drive
Web Servers
a computer running special software that enables it to respond to requests for information or accept inputted information.
Internet Protocol Address (IP Address)
a numerical identification and logical address that is assigned to devices participating in a computer network.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
string of characters that precisely identifies an Internet resource’s type and location. Has four parts: Protocol, Domain Name, Path, and Resource/Filename.
Protocol
first part of URL, specifies the HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), the Internet standard that supports the exchange of information on the web.
Domain Name
Second part of URL, which correlates to the Web server’s IP address.
Domain Name System (DNS)
links Domain names with their corresponding numerical IP addresses, like a phone book for the Internet.
Path
The third part of the URl, specifies the location of the document on the server.
Resource/Filename
Last part of URL which gives the file name of the resource you’re accessing.
History List
a list of previously visited Web pages.
Bookmarks
Stores the web page in a favorites section which you can use anytime to go back to that web page.
Downloading
A document or file is transferred from another computer to your computer.
Uploading
You transfer files from your computer to another computer.
Really Simple Syndication (RSS)
A feed, that he or she will receive constant updates over the Internet from that site without any further involvement.
Aggregator
a program that remembers your subscription list, checks each site on a regular basis, alerts you if new information is published and organizes results for you.
Wikis
Hawaiian word for fast, is a simple Web page which any visitor can post text or images, read previous posts, change posted information, and track earlier changes.
Blogs
An Internet equivalent of a journal or dairy.
Podcasts
Can be any kind of audio as well as images and video. A way to get information in audio/video format.
Portals (or Web Portals)
a Web page that acts as a gateway to a lot of diverse sources and presents those sources in an organized way.
Clickstream
a Trail of web links you have followed to get to a particular site.
Search Engines
Make use of databases of the web pages they indexed.
Google Search Engine
Most popular search engine
Spiders
Search engines make use of computer programs to roam the WWW via Internet, visit sites, and databases, and keep the search engine’s database of Web pages up to date. They obtain new pages, update known pages, and delete obsolete ones.
Link Rot
Hyperlinks that no longer work and Web pages that have been removed or restructured.
Phrase Searching
generally performed by typing a phrase within quotation marks. Tells search engine to retrieve only those documents that contain the exact phrase.
Inclusion Operator (generally a + sign)
This operator states that you only want a page retrieved if it contains the specified word.
Exclusion Operator (Generally a minus (-) sign)
Used to exclude undesired term by prefacing it with the exclusion operator.
Internet Service
best understood as a set of standards that define how two types of programs – a client, like a web browser that runs on a user’s computer, and a server – can communicate with each other through the Internet.
E-mail
A software application that enables you to send and receive messages via network.
E-mail Attachment
can be any type of computer file – like document, photo, etc. that is included with an e-mail.
E-mail Address
A unique cyberspace identity for particular recipient
Spam
Where e-mail users receive unsolicited e-mail advertising.
Malware
Sometimes contained in spam, which is a malicious software that places a computer in the spammer’s control.
Botnet
a set of computers infected with malicious programs that places the computers under the control of a Bot Herder
Bot Herder
an individual that controls a botnet.
Instant Messaging (IM)
A faster way to chat to a friend or someone through messenging software like AOL’s AIM or Windows Live Messenger.
Spimming
Its Spam that targets users of instant messaging.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC)
An Internet service that enables you to join chat groups, called Channels, and participate in real-time, text-based converations.
Usenet
A worldwide computer-based discussion system accessible through the Internet.
Message Board
Similar to a newsgroup, but easier to use and does not require a newsreader.
Newsgroup
a discussion groups devoted to a single topic.
Electronic Mailing Lists
Similar to newsgroup and forums, but they automatically broadcast messages to all individuals on a mailing list.
VoIP (Voice over Internet Protocol)
Allows a user to speak to others over a broadband Internet connection instead of traditional analog phone line.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
One way that files can be transferred over the Internet, and it is useful for transferring files that are too large to be sent by e-mail.
E-Commerce
Use of networks or the Internet to carry out business of any type
Business-to-Business E-Commerce (B2B)
When a business uses the Internet to provide another business with materials, services, etc
Dell and Microsoft
Companies that participate in B2B.
Consumer-to-Consumer E-Commerce (C2C)
Online exchange or trade of goods, services, etc. between individuals.
Ebay
A site that contains C2C
Business-to-Consumer E-Commerce (B2C)
Where a business uses the Internet to supply consumers with services, products, etc.
Dot-Com Phenomenon
Where much e-commerce occurs in the dot-com world, the universe of Web sites with suffix .com appended to their names.
Web hosting company
offer domain name search and registration services.
Netiquette
Short for Internet etiquette, is the code for acceptable behavior and manners while on the Internet.
Flame
Messages that express opinion without holding back any emotion and are frequently seen as being confrontational and argumentative.
HTTPS
Like HTTP, HTTPS with the included “s” stands for “Secure site” and that the data is encrypted all the way from your computer to the computer that receives it. No one will be able to read your input as it passes along the Internet.