Chapter 6: Memory

Memory
Is an active system that receives information from the senses puts that info into a usable form, organizes it as it stores it away, and then retrieves the info from storage.
Memory Processes- Encoding
First (1) Process in the memory system is to get sensory information (sight, sound) in a form that the brain can use.
Memory Processes- Storage
Hold on to the information for some period of time
Memory Processes- Retrieval
Getting the information they know they have out of storage.
Models of Memory- Levels of Processing
Processing meaning, which requires more mental effort than processing just it’s “looks.”
Models of Memory- Parallel Distributed Processing
Derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence (AI)
Information Processing Model- Iconic Memory
Visual
Information Processing Model- Echoic Memory
Auditory
Selective Attention
The ability to focus on one one stimulus from among all sensory input
Chunking
The process of re coding or reorganization the information
Maintenance Rehearsal
Practice of saying some information to be remembered over and over in one’s head in order to maintain it in short-term memory.
Failure of STM
When rehearsal stops, the memory rapidly decays and is forgotten.
Elaborative rehearsal
Is a way of transferring information from STM (Short Term Memory) into LTM (Long Term Memory) by making that information meaningful in some way.
Non-declarative (Implicit) Memories
Memories for things that people know how to do- Example: Tying Shoes, Riding a Bicycle
Declarative (Explicit) Memories
Procedural memory is about the things that people can do but (Explicit) is about all the things that people can know, the facts and information that make up knowledge.
Semantic Networks
Concepts that are related in meaning are thought to be stored physically near each other in the brain, Example: Canary and Ostrich
Retrieval Cues
A stimulus for remembering, the sound of the word or phrase.
Recognition
Involves looking at or hearing information and matching it to what is already in memory.
Recall
Memories are retrieved with few or no external cues, such as filling in the blanks on an application form.
Loftus Research- Eye-witness Testimony: Problems
What people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of the memories of that event.
Flashbulb Memory
Memories of highly emotional evens can often seem vivid and detailed, as if the person’s mind took a “flash picture” of the moment in time.
Constructive Processing of Memories
Referring to the retrieval of memories in which those memories are altered, revised, or influenced by newer information.
Hindsight Bias
Tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted an outcome having been told about it in advance.
Misinformation Effect
The tendency of missing info presented after an event to after the memories of the event itself.
Effects of Hyponsis
Can make it easier to create false memories increase the confidence people have in their memories, regardless of whether those memories are real or false
False Memory Syndrome
Creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis.
Ebbinghaus’ Curve of Forgetting
A graph showing a distinct pattern in which forgetting is very fast within the first hour after learning a list and then tapers of gradually.
Encoding Failure
Failure to process info into memory
Memory Trace decay theory
Physical change in the brain that occurs when a memory is formed. Decay, loss of memory due to the passage of time during which the memory trace is not used.
Proactive Interference
Memory problem that occurs when older info prevents or interferes with the learning or retrieval of NEWER information.
Retroactive intereference
Memory problem that occurs when newer info prevents or interferes with the retrieval of OLDER information.
Role of Neural Activity and Structure in Memory Formation
Change in the number of receptor sites, changes in the sensitivity of the synapse through repeated stimulation (long term potentiation) and changes in the dendrites and specifically in the proteins within the neurons.
CH. 6- Role of the hippocampus
Part of the brain responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
Organic Amnesia
When memory fails
Retrograde Amnesia
Loss of memory from the point of some injury or trauma backwards, or loss of memory for the past.
Anterograde Amnesia
Loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward- have difficulty remembering anything NEW.
Infantile Amnesia
The inability to retrieve memories from much before age 3.
Autobiographical Memory
The memory for events and facts related to one’s personal life story.
Alzheimer’s and Dementia
Primary memory problem in the beginning: anterograde amnesia. Memory loss may be rather mild at first, but becomes more severe over time causing the person to become more and more forgetful about everyday tasks.
Role of Sleep, Diet and Exercise: Sleep
Memories are more likely to be consolidated and remember better later on. Sleep deprivation severely interferes with the functioning of the hippocampus, the part of the brain that is vital to forming new memories.
Role of Sleep, Diet and Exercise: Exercise
Brief exercise- Good for your Memory. Norepinephrine- A neurotransmitter found in the brain, plays a strong role in the formation of memories.
Diet
Improves memory- Fish such as Salmon, Bluefin, and Sword fish have high levels of an omega-3 fatty acid called DHA (docosanexanoic acid)