Chapter 6 Psychology

memory
an active system that receives information from the senses, puts that information into a usable form, organizes it as it stores it away and then retrieves the information from storage
encoding
the first process in the memory system is to get sensory information into a form that the brain can use. it is the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a usable form
storage
holding onto the information for some period of time
retrieval
getting the information they know they have out of storage
information processing model
focuses on the way information is handled, or processed, through three different systems of memory. similar to the way a computer processes memory
parallel distributed processing
this model is derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence (AI) . a model of memory in which memory processes are proposed to take place at the same time over a large network of neural connections
semantic network model
assumes that information that is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer together than concepts that aren’t highly related
they are organized in terms of related meanings and concepts
how is PDP related to SN?
levels of processing model
model of memory that assumes information that is more “deeply processed”, or processed according to its meaning rather than just the sound or physical characteristics of the word or words, will be remembered more efficiently and for a longer period of time
sensory memory
the first stage of memory, the point at which information enters the nervous system through the eyes, ears, and so on.
neural messages
information is encoded into sensory memory as _______ ______ in the nervous system
iconic(visual) memory
only lasts for a fraction of a second.
everything, once
the capacity of iconic memory is _______ that can be seen at ______(sperling)
pushed out very quickly by new information
quarter
in general information in the iconic memory will be ___________….
research suggests that only after a _____ of a second information is replaced by new information.
echoic (auditory) memory
the brief memory of something a person has heard
4
the duration of echoic memory lasts about __ seconds
-meaningful conversations
-what can be heard at any one time
echoic memory is very useful when a person wants to have ….?
echoic’s memory capacity is limited to what?
it is smaller than iconic’s capacity
the “what” phenomenon
echoic memory
what allows a musician to tune a musical instrument?
eidetic imagery
the ability to access a visual sensory memory over a long period of time
short term memory
the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used.
– can be held up to 30 seconds
selective attention
the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
ex- cocktail party effect
digit-span test
refers to the number of items that a person can hold in working memory
– the capacity is about 7 items +/- 2
chunking
the process of recoding or reorganizing the information
maintenance rehearsal
a person is simply continuing to pay attention to the info to be held in memory, and since attention is how that info got into STM it works quite well
working memory
an active system that processes the information present in short term memory. consists of three interrelated systems
central executive
visual sketchpad
auditory action “recorder”
the three systems are
central executive
controls and coordinates the other two systems. acts as a interpreter for both the visual and auditory information.
sketchpad
contains images of the people and events of the particular passage being read
recorder
plays the dialogue in the persons head
long term memory
the system into which all the info is placed to be kept more or less permanently, this system is unlimited for all practical purposes
elaborative rehearsal
way a transferring information from STM into LTM by making that information meaningful in some way
procedural memory
includes skills and habits or through priming, the improvement in in identifying or processing concepts, words, or objects after having prior experience with them, but also in memory associations learned through classical or operant conditioning that may not be in conscious awareness
declarative memory
all the things people know, the facts and info that make up knowledge.
non declarative memory
what people can do or demonstrate
semantic
awareness of the meanings of words, concepts and terms as well as names of objects math skills and so on.
– example:Jeapardy
episodic
memories of what happened to people, birthdays, childhood events.
these memories tend to be updated
retrieval cue
the sound of the word or phrase
encoding specificity
the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if retrieval conditions are similar to the conditions under which the information was encoded
context dependent learning
refers the physical surroundings a person is in when they are learning specific information
state-dependent learning
memories formed during a particle physiological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state
recall
memories are retrieved with little or no effort.
-example:filling in the blank, short answer, essay
recognition
involves looking at or hearing information and matching it to what is already in memory
-Example: multiple choice, matching, and true false
serial position effect
information at the beginning and the end of a list tends to be remembered more easily
primary effect
the first few words will receive far more rehearsal than the words in the middle
recency effect
the last word or words was just heard and it still in short term memory for easy retrieval
automatic encoding
long term memories seem to enter permanent storage with little or no effort at all
Flashbulb memory
a special kind of automatic encoding takes place when an unexpected event or episode in a persons life has strong emotional associations. memories of highly emotional events can often seem vivid and details as if the persons mind took a flash picture of the moment in time
constructive processing
view of memory retrieval. memories are literally built or reconstructed from the information stored away for encoding
hindsight bias
the tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted an outcome without having been told about it in advance
Example- you knew who was going to win the fb game
misinformation effect
false memories that are created by a person being exposed to information after the event; it can become part of the actual memory affecting its accuracy
false positive
just enough similarity between a stimulus that is not already in memory and one that is in memory, occurs when a person thinks he/she has recognized something or someone but fact does not have that person in memory
false memories
the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis
eyewitness testimony
can be influenced and affect the accurracy of their memories by information given after the event in question
1. the event must be plausible as possible
2. individuals are given info that helps them believe that the event could have happened to them personally
Two steps that must occur before people will be likely to interpret their thoughts and fantasies about false events as true memories
hermann ebbinghaus
one of the first people to study forgetting
poor encoding (encoding failure)
the failure to process information into memory
ex: friend says something but you weren’t paying attention
storage (decay/disuse)
over time if the traces aren’t used they fade into nothing
memory trace
some physical change in the brain, perhaps in a neuron or in the activity between neurons, which occurs when a memory is formed
disuse
when referring to long term memory decay theory is usually called _______ and the phrase use it or lose it takes on great meaning
retrieval failure
the memories may not be accessible to attempted retrieval because other information interferes
organic memory failure
tip of the tongue phenomenon
although people may be able to say how long the word is or name letters that start or end they word they cannot retrieve the sound or actual spelling of the word to allow it to be pulled into the auditory recorder of STM so that it can be fully retrieved
forgetting curve
clearly shows that forgetting happens quickly within the first hour after learning the lists and then tapers off gradually. forgetting is greatest just after learning
proactive interference
the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the learning of new material
Ex: when someone gets a new cell phone
retroactive interference
when newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
hippocampus
long term new declarative memories are stored in the ____
cerebellum
procedural memories are stored where?
prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobe
where are short term memories stored?
the frontal and temporal lobes
semantic and episodic memories long-term memories are stored where
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory from the point of injury backwards
Ex: all memories that are in the process of being stored but weren’t permanent are lost
anterograde amnesia
the loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward
Example: a concussion, you can’t store any new information