Chapter 6 – Quiz Questions

Psychologists consider memory to be:
a. a passive storage bank of experiences.
b. only possible with effort.
c. an active system.
d. limited to encoding sensory information.
An active system
_________ is the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input.
a. Anterograde amnesia
b. Working memory
c. Selective attention
d. Chunking
Selective attention
For which of the following pieces of information would a person be LEAST likely to use the method of chunking?
a. a five-digit zip code
b. a ten-digit telephone number
c. a sixteen-digit account number
d. a nine-digit social security number
Chunking
According to Craik and Lockhart, information that is _______ will be remembered more effectively and for a longer period of time.
a. repeated many times
b. deeply processed
c. read
d. processed according to the sound of the physical characteristics of the words
Deeply processed
In the information-processing model, the first stage of memory is ______ memory.
a. short-term
b. iconic
c. long-term
d. sensory
Sensory
The most efficient way of transferring short-term memory into long-term memory is by using:
a. elaborative rehearsal.
b. maintenance rehearsal.
c. chunking.
d. rote learning.
Elaborative rehearsal
6. The phrase “use it or lose it” refers to which theory of forgetting?
a. proactive interference
b. decay
c. retroactive interference
d. encoding failure
Decay
When Diana remodeled her kitchen, she moved the clock from one wall to another. Now every time she enters the kitchen, she looks at the blank wall to see the time. Diana is experiencing:
a. retroactive interference.
b. anterograde amnesia.
c. retrograde amnesia.
d. proactive interference.
Proactive interference
Mrs. Tuttle was 97 years old and suffered from forgetfulness and mental confusion. She was probably experiencing:
a. encoding failure.
b. senile dementia.
c. retrograde amnesia.
d. anterograde amnesia.
Senile dementia
If you move from the United States to England and have trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are experiencing:
a. proactive interference.
b. encoding failure.
c. retroactive interference.
d. memory trace decay.
Proactive Interference
Brenda called Mike while he was in the middle of the meeting to ask him to pick up some milk on his way home from work. When Mike got home he didn’t have the milk, and Brenda was angry. Mike may have experienced
a. memory blocking.
b. anterograde amnesia.
c. selective memory.
d. encoding failure.
Encoding failure
The ________ effect suggests that the first and last person interviewed for a job will be better remembered by the interviewer than all the people in the middle.
a. bystander
b. interference
c. middle-man
d. serial position
Serial position
It has been five years since you’ve taken a psychology course and you find yourself back in school taking Introduction to Psychology all over again. Unfortunately, you’re having a difficult time remembering anything that you had learned previously. Your forgetting in this situation is most likely due to _____.
a. the recency effect
b. decay
c. proactive interference
d. the primacy effect
Decay
Donyelle finds that she performs better on the exams that are given in her regular psychology classroom than in the large lecture room that is used to give midterms and finals to several sections at once. Donyelle’s experience illustrates:
a. the role of the recency effect.
b. the role of the primacy effect.
c. the importance of maintenance rehearsal in memory.
d. the importance of retrieval cues in memory.
The importance of retrieval cues in memory
An eyewitness was asked to testify in court about her memory of a crime that took place on her street. Prior to her testimony, an attorney provided her with a written statement from another neighbor who had also viewed the crime. As a result of reading her neighbor’s statement, which was different from her own, the accuracy of her memory was altered, which eventually affected her testimony. This is an example of:
a. the levels-of-processing model.
b. hindsight bias.
c. the misinformation effect.
d. the curve of forgetting.
The misinformation effect
On the Internet, each website has its own specific information but is also linked to many other related sites. In addition, a person can have open more than one site at the same time. This pattern of organization may be very similar to how:
a. long-term memories are forgotten.
b. the mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory.
c. the mind organizes the information stored in short-term memory.
d. short-term memories are forgotten.
The mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory
To help students learn new psychology terms, Professor Williams encourages the students to think deeply about the meaning of the words by asking them to provide examples of each term and to use each one in a sentence. Professor Williams is using which model of memory?
a. parallel distributed processing
b. information-processing
c. levels-of-processing
d. semantic network
Levels-of-processing
Kayla fell and broke her arm at the age of two, but when asked if she remembers, she notes that she has no recollection of the incident. Kayla’s inability to recall the event might be best explained as _______.
a. autobiographical amnesia
b. infantile amnesia
c. retrograde amnesia
d. anterograde amnesia
Infantile amnesia
Ebbinghaus’s ________ shows that forgetting happens quickly, within the first hour, and then tapers off gradually.
a. curve of forgetting
b. distributed practice theory
c. encoding failure theory
d. interference theory
Curve of forgetting
Kevin, the school board’s secretary, was asked to save all of the information he recorded from the town meeting so that the school board could refer back to it whenever necessary. Kevin’s saved recording relates best to which step of the process of memory?
a. encoding
b. storage
c. retrieval
d. decoding
Storage
Dr. McCrae encourages her students to go beyond just memorizing definitions. She teaches them that if they fully understand the meanings of the concepts covered in class, they will be able to remember them much longer. Dr. McCrae’s lesson to her students appears to be based on which model of memory?
a. higher-order processing
b. parallel distributed processing
c. information processing
d. levels-of-processing
Levels-of-processing
A(n) ________ is a memory expert or someone with exceptional memory ability.
a. amnesic
b. phlebotomist
c. memorist
d. mnemonist
Mnemonist
The fact that everyone remembers that George Washington was the first president points to the primacy effect as a result of:
a. short-term memory storage.
b. state-dependent learning.
c. recognition.
d. long-term memory storage.
Long-term memory storage
Why do flashbulb memories seem so vivid and exact?
a. Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of sensory memories.
b. Emotional reactions seem to stimulate a person’s ability to engage in elaborative rehearsal that is known to enhance the formation of sensory memories.
c. Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of long-term memories.
d. Emotional reactions seem to stimulate a person’s ability to engage in elaborative rehearsal that is known to enhance the formation of long-term memories.
Emotional reactions seem to stimulate the release of hormones that have been shown to enhance the formation of long-term memories
What is the best way for a person to overcome the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
a. Name the letters that start or end the word.
b. Think about words that may sound like the word you are trying to retrieve.
c. Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve.
d. Think about the length of the word or concept.
Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve
Elizabeth Loftus’ research determined that:
a. eyewitness testimony is generally accurate and reliable.
b. what people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event.
c. people tend to forget memories that are painful.
d. flashbulb memories are rarely an accurate memory of the actual event.
What people see and hear about an event after the fact can easily affect the accuracy of their memories of that event
21. Which of the following best describes psychologist John Kihlstrom’s comments when talking about Bartlett’s book on memory?
a. Memory is more like making up a story than it is like reading a book.
b. Memory is more like reading a book than it is like making up a story.
c. Memory is more like reading a book than it is like going to a movie.
d. Memory is more like a movie than it is like taking a photograph
Memory is more like making up a story that it is reading a book
In a study discussed in the textbook that researched the effects of different types of information on memory, subjects viewed a slide presentation of a traffic accident. The actual slide presentation contained a stop sign, but in a written summary of the presentation, the sign was referred to as a yield sign. What were the results of this study?
a. Subjects who were given misleading information prior to viewing the slides were far more accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no information.
b. Subjects who were given misleading information prior to viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no information.
c. Subjects who were given misleading information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no such information.
d. Subjects who were given no information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given misleading information.
Subjects who were given misleading information after viewing the slides were far less accurate in their memories for the kind of sign present than were subjects who were given no such information.
A research study found that people who look at real visual images and then are asked to simply imagine looking at visual images:
a. are typically able later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
b. are often unable later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
c. are often unable to remember any of the images.
d. often remember only some of the images.
Are often unable later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
The _______ is the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
a. hippocampus
b. cerebellum
c. hypothalamus
d. pons
Hippocampus
In one study with depressed patients who were being treated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), patients were tested for their memory of certain television programs both before and after the treatment. What was the result?
a. Patients forgot older programs but remembered more recent ones.
b. Patients forgot programs in a random pattern.
c. Patients’ memories of programs were not affected.
d. Patients forgot more recent programs but remembered older ones.
Patients forgot more recent programs but remembered older ones
The idea that memory formation is a simultaneous process is reflected in the:
a. iconic memory model.
b. parallel distributed processing model.
c. levels-of-processing model.
d. information-processing model.
Parallel distributed processing model
The _________ assumes that how long a memory will be remembered depends on the stage of memory in which it is stored.
a. sensory memory
b. information-processing model
c. levels-of-processing model
d. parallel distributed processing model
Information-processing model
The fact that everyone remembers that George Washington was the first president points to the primacy effect as a result of:
a. recognition.
b. state-dependent learning.
c. short-term memory storage.
d. long-term memory storage.
Long-term memory storage
Juana was certain that the man she saw in the police photograph was the man who stole her purse. Later, another man confessed to the crime. This is an example of:
a. retrograde amnesia.
b. a false positive.
c. repression.
d. decay.
The false positive
What is the best way for a person to overcome the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon?
a. Think about words that may sound like the word you are trying to retrieve.
b. Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve.
c. Name the letters that start or end the word.
d. Think about the length of the word or concept.
Stop trying to remember the information you are trying to retrieve
The system of working memory processes the information in:
a. short-term memory.
b. the hippocampus.
c. the attention filter.
d. long-term memory.
Short-term memory
Memory for facts is called ________ memory because facts are things that are known and can be stated outright.
a. encyclopedic
b. definitive
c. declarative
d. procedural
Declarative
One may transfer information from short-term memory (STM) into long-term memory (LTM) by:
a. elaborative rehearsal.
b. paying attention.
c. rote learning.
d. chunking.
Elaborative rehearsal
In their original study, which explored how information is stored in long-term memory, Collins and Quillian (1969) asked participants to respond “true” or “false” as quickly as possible to sentences such as “a canary is a bird” and “a canary is an animal.” The results of this study suggest that:
a. information exists in a kind of network, with nodes of related information linked to each other in a kind of hierarchy.
b. information is processed through three different stages of memory.
c. memory processes take place at different times over a small network of neural connections.
d. information is encoded in memory in auditory form.
Information exists in a kind of network, with nodes of related information linked to each other in a kind of hierarchy.
The Tower of Hanoi study found that people with anterograde amnesia:
a. still formed new procedural memories.
b. had no memory of their lives before they got amnesia.
c. were able to form new declarative memories.
d. had irreversible brain damage.
Still formed new procedural memories
The ______ can be used to explain how rapidly the points on the semantic network can be accessed.
a. levels-of-processing model
b. information-processing model
c. decay theory
d. parallel distributed processing model
Parallel distributed processing model
On the Internet, each website has its own specific information but is also linked to many other related sites. In addition, a person can have open more than one site at the same time. This pattern of organization may be very similar to how:
a. the mind organizes the information stored in short-term memory.
b. long-term memories are forgotten.
c. short-term memories are forgotten.
d. the mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory.
The mind organizes the information stored in long-term memory.
As Amanda was reading through her course text, she couldn’t remember anything that she read. She realized that although she was seeing the words, she wasn’t processing the information. The information-processing memory system being used by Amanda was _______ memory.
a. sensory
b. echoic
c. working
d. short-term
Sensory
In his 1932 book, Sir Frederic Bartlett wrote that he viewed memory:
a. like instant replay.
b. like reading a story in a book.
c. as a problem-solving activity.
d. as a sketchpad.
As a problem-solving activity
If you move from the United States to England and have trouble adjusting to driving on the left side of the road, you are experiencing:
a. retroactive interference.
b. proactive interference.
c. encoding failure.
d. memory trace decay.
Proactive Interference
The phrase “use it or lose it” refers to which theory of forgetting?
a. retroactive interference
b. encoding failure
c. decay
d. proactive interference
Decay
To help students learn new psychology terms, Professor Williams encourages the students to think deeply about the meaning of the words by asking them to provide examples of each term and to use each one in a sentence. Professor Williams is using which model of memory?
a. information-processing
b. parallel distributed processing
c. levels-of-processing
d. semantic network
Levels-of processing
Marcos and his friends enjoy watching football together on Sundays. After some of the games are over, Marcos tells his friends that he knew all along who would win the game. Marcos’ belief that he could predict the outcome of some of the games without having been told the winners in advance is an example of:
a. hindsight bias.
b. the misinformation effect.
c. encoding specificity.
d. the primacy effect.
Hindsight Bias
When a memory is being formed, several changes take place in the brain in a process called:
a. automatic encoding.
b. consolidation.
c. encoding specificity.
d. deep processing.
Consolidation
The _______ is the part of the brain that is responsible for the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
a. hippocampus
b. hypothalamus
c. pons
d. cerebellum
Hippocampus
A research study found that people who look at real visual images and then are asked to simply imagine looking at visual images:
a. are typically able later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
b. are often unable later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
c. often remember only some of the images.
d. are often unable to remember any of the images.
Are often unable later to distinguish between the images they had really seen and the imagined images.
________ syndrome refers to the creation of inaccurate memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis.
a. Misinformation
b. Imagined memory
c. Suggestibility
d. False memory
False memory
In order to remember the short list of groceries her mother gave to her, Denver repeated the list to herself over and over again until she got all of the items from the store that she needed. Denver’s method of memorizing the grocery list involved the process of _______.
a. maintenance rehearsal
b. memory tracing
c. chunking
d. echoic rehearsal
Maintenance rehearsal
Which of the following memories would be an inadequate illustration of procedural memory?
a. responding to a question on Jeopardy!
b. driving a car
c. riding a bike
d. brushing teeth
Responding to a question on Jeopardy
When given a list of grocery items to remember, Marissa can only recall the last several items on the list. Marissa’s memory lapse is a good illustration of _______.
a. the primacy effect
b. anterograde amnesia
c. the recency effect
d. retrograde amnesia
The recency effect
Dr. Raime asked his students, “Who was the ‘Father of Psychology’ and why?” Kanye responded, “Wilhelm Wundt, who in 1879 was credited as developing the first psychology laboratory in Leipzig, Germany.” The information that Kanye was able to recall reflects which type of long-term memory?
a. episodic
b. comprehensive
c. semantic
d. implicit
Semantic
As Nevide was listening to the radio, an old song that he hadn’t heard in a very long time began to play. To his amazement, not only was he able to sing along, but he remembered every word. It appears that the song that Nevide heard on the radio was stored in his ______ memory.
a. long-term
b. echoic
c. short-term
d. working
Elaborative rehearsal
Short-term memory tends to be encoded primarily in:
a. visual form.
b. a “sketchpad.”
c. auditory form.
d. working memory.
Auditory form
In spite of the loud music and many conversations at the party, Rachel was able to hear her friend say her name. Rachel’s ability to hear her name regardless of the background noise is an example of:
a. maintenance rehearsal.
b. procedural memory.
c. selective attention.
d. iconic memory.
Selective attention
Eduardo is watching people walk down the street, and all of a sudden, he thinks, “Was that man wearing a bright purple suit?” As a result of this thought, he looks back at the man to see if it is true. Which type of memory is responsible for Eduardo’s behavior?
a. long-term
b. working
c. iconic sensory
d. short-term
Iconic sensory
On the way to the grocery store, James repeats his list to himself—”Bread, milk, butter. Bread, milk butter….” James is using:
a. maintenance rehearsal.
b. elaborative rehearsal.
c. rote learning.
d. encoding specificity.
Maintenance rehearsal
After she had used “maintenance rehearsal” many times, Eve’s Social Security number:
a. was considered part of working memory.
b. found its way into her long-term memory.
c. moved back into sensory memory.
d. still remained in short-term memory.
Found its way into her long-term memory
The ______ acts as interpreter for both the visual and auditory information in short-term memory (STM).
a. hippocampus
b. long-term memory
c. central executive
d. sensory memory
Central executive
In a room filled with people, where several conversations are going on, you are able to hear your name being spoken. This is:
a. maintenance rehearsal.
b. chunking.
c. the “cocktail-party effect.”
d. eidetic imagery.
the “cocktail-party effect”
Your mother tells you, “You could be in a room filled with noise, but you always hear what you want to hear.” This statement best reflects which of the following concepts related to short-term memory?
a. echoic memory
b. photographic memory
c. selective attention
d. eidetic imagery
Selective attention
In _________, new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed.
a. loss of procedural memory
b. retrograde amnesia
c. anterograde amnesia
d. long-term memory loss
Anterograde amnesia
Manny was talking to his friend as he was walking out the door. A few minutes later, Manny asked his friend about the conversation they had few minutes earlier, while walking out the door. Since his friend was not paying attention to him, he could not recall what Manny had said. Manny’s friend experienced:
a. encoding failure.
b. proactive interference.
c. memory trace.
d. premature recall.
Encoding failure
Marcia dated Davio for several years. They recently broke up and Marcia went out on a date with a man named Oliver. While on the date, Marcia mistakenly called him Davio. This is an example of:
a. consolidation.
b. retroactive interference.
c. disuse.
d. proactive interference.
Proactive interference
Chris learns her vocabulary words while listening to upbeat, happy music, and is then better able to remember them later if she is happy. This is called:
a. state-dependent learning.
b. recognition.
c. episodic memory.
d. procedural memory.
State-dependent learning
People’s memories of September 11, 2001 are best described as:
a. recognition.
b. implicit memories.
c. procedural memories
d. flashbulb memories.
Flashbulb memories
Carl is able to remember the names of the first three presidents before he begins to have difficulty. This is:
a. state-dependent learning.
b. recognition.
c. the recency effect.
d. the primacy effect.
The primacy effect
To answer the questions in this test, which type of memory recall will you most frequently use?
a. recall
b. recognition
c. state-dependent learning
d. encoding specificity
Recognition
Information that enters long-term memory by automatic encoding:
a. is most common in childhood.
b. must be practiced extensively.
c. requires little or no effort to retrieve.
d. is rare.
Requires little or no effort to retrieve
While hypnosis may make it easier to recall some memories, it also:
a. causes physical changes in the brain.
b. makes the memories more vivid than before.
c. makes it easier to create false memories.
d. can regress people into past lives.
Makes it easier to create false memories
A study conducted by Pezdek and Hodge (1999) asked children to read five different summaries of childhood events. Two of these events were false, but only one of the two false events were plausible. The children were all told that all of the events happened to them as small children. The results of this study indicated:
a. that the plausible false events were significantly less likely to be remembered as false memories than were the implausible false events.
b. that the true events were significantly more likely to be remembered than were the implausible false events.
c. that the plausible false events were significantly more likely to be remembered as false memories than were the implausible false events.
d. that the true events were significantly less likely to be remembered than were the implausible false events.
The he plausible false events were significantly more likely to be remembered as false memories than were the implausible false events.
A multiple-choice test requires the use of what type of retrieval process?
a. rote memorization
b. encoding
c. recognition
d. recall
Recognition
You always ask for a window whenever you fly because you love looking at the clouds and their shapes as the plane flies above them. The type of sensory memory used when viewing the clouds is _______ memory.
a. iconic sensory
b. working
c. photographic
d. echoic
Iconic sensory
Which of the following is NOT an example of a test using recall?
a. essay
b. short answer
c. matching
d. fill-in-the-blank
Matching
The case of H. M. shows that the ______ is integral in the formation of new long-term declarative memories.
a. hippocampus
b. medulla
c. prefrontal cortex
d. amygdala
Hippocampus
Ruth was in a car accident that resulted in a head injury. She cannot remember the events that occurred several hours prior to the accident. Ruth is experiencing:
a. retrograde amnesia.
b. autobiographical memory.
c. infantile amnesia.
d. anterograde amnesia.
Retrograde amnesia
The information-processing model assumes that the length of time a memory will be remembered depends on:
a. where the event takes place.
b. a person’s age at the time the memory is processed.
c. how long ago the event took place.
d. the stage of memory in which it is stored.
The stage or memory in which it is stored
Kevin was in a study room during which he was shown a photo of a man with straight hair. Later, he was asked if he noticed the man’s curly hair. Kevin was then convinced that the man in the photo had curly hair. This is an example of:
a. false-memory syndrome.
b. retrograde amnesia.
c. the misinformation effect.
d. the curve of forgetting.
The misinformation effect
The constructive processing view says that every time a memory is retrieved:
a. it is exactly the same.
b. one must rehearse it to keep it in LTM.
c. another memory is lost.
d. it may be altered or revised in some way.
It may be altered or revised in some way
The set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a form that is usable in the brain’s storage systems is called:
a. storage.
b. rehearsal.
c. encoding.
d. retrieval.
Encoding
The ________ is derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence.
a. misinformation effect
b. parallel distributed processing model
c. encoding stage
d. levels-of-processing model
Parallel distributed processing model
Pedro was able to recall his new friend’s phone number by reminding himself that the last four digits were the same as his own, just in a different order. Pedro was able to use _______ to help him remember his friend’s phone number.
a. chunking
b. implicit memory
c. a retrieval cue
d. the digit-span technique
Retrieval cue