Chapter 6

encoding
first stage in memory system
encoding
the set of mental operations that people perform on sensory information to convert that information into a usable for
storage
second stage in memory system
storage
holding on to the information for some period of time in a process
retrieval
third step in memory system
retrieval
getting the information they know they have out of storage
information-processing model
focuses on the way information is handled, or processed, through three different systems of memory
parallel-distributing model
model of memory derived from work in the development of artificial intelligence
parallel-distributing model
sees memory as a simultaneous process; creation and storage of memories taking place across a series of mental networks stretched across the brain
levels-of-processing model
thinking about the meaning of something is a deeper level of processing and results in longer retention of the information
sensory memory
first stage of memory (information-processing model); info enters through the 5 senses
iconic memory
visual sensory memory
echoic memory
the brief memory of something a person has heard
short-term memory (STM)
second stage of memory (information-processing model); memories that are held for 30 seconds or more
selective attention
the ability to focus on only one stimulus from among all sensory input
cocktail party effect
when you’re able to distinguish your name in a crowd
working memory
an active system that processes the information present in STM
maintenance rehearsal
repeating a piece of information over and over just long enough so you can write it down (or whatever)
long-term memory (LTM)
the system into which all the information is placed to be kept more or less permanently
elaborative rehearsal
a way of transferring information from STM to LTM by making it meaningful in some way
implicit (nondeclarative) memory
memories for skills that people know how to do (tying shoes, riding a bike)
anterograde amnesia
new long-term declarative memories cannot be formed
explicit (declarative) memory
memories for thing people can know; facts and information that make up knowledge
semantic memory
general knowledge that anyone has the ability to know and that is often learned in school or be reading
episodic memory
memories that represent episodes from our lives (graduation, first date, anniversaries)
semantic network model
assumes that the information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related to each other stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related
encoding specificity
the tendency for memory of any kind of information to be improved if retrieval conditions are similar to the conditions under which the information was encoded (the best place to take a test is in the classroom that you learned the information in)
state-dependent learning
memories formed during a particular physiological or psychological state will be easier to remember while in a similar state (when arguing it is easier to remember the bad things about someone)
recall
memories are retrieved with few o no external cues (filling out personal fill-in-the-blank forms)
recognition
onvolves looking at or hearing information and matching it to what is already in memory (word searches or tests)
serial position effect
information at the beginning and the end of a list (such as a poem or song) tends to be remembered more easily and accurately
primacy effect
words at the very beginning of the list tend to be remembered better that those in the middle of the list
recency effect
the last word or two was just heard and is still in STM for easy retrieval, with no new words entering to push the most recent word out of memory
automatic encoding
many other kinds of LTMs seem to enter permanent storage with little or not effort
flashbulb memories
memories of highly emotional events can often seem vivid and detailed, as if the person’s mid took a flash picture of the moment in time
constructive processing
memories are literally built from pieces stored away at encoding; each time a memory is retrieved, it may be altered or revised in some way to include new information, or details that were there at encoding may be left out of the new retrieval
hindsight bias
the tendency of people to falsely believe that they would have accurately predicted an outcome without having been told about it in advance
misinformation effect
when false memories are created by a person being exposed to information after the event; misleading information that can become part of the actual memory
false memory syndrome
the creation of inaccurate or false memories through the suggestion of others, often while the person is under hypnosis
curve of forgetting
the graph that clearly shows that forgetting happens quickly within the first hour after learning the lists and then tapers off gradually (Hermann Ebbinghaus)
distributed practice
spacing out study sessions will produce far better retrieval information
massed practice
the attempt to study a body of material all at once
encoding failure
the failure to process information into memory
decay
when memory fades into nothing
memory trace
some physical change in the brain which occurs when a memory is formed
disuse
when referring to LTM, decay theory is usually called ___; use it or lose it
proactive interference
the tendency for older or previously learned material to interfere with the learning of new material
retroactive interference
when newer information interferes with the retrieval of older information
retrograde amnesia
loss of memory from the point of injury backwards
anterograde amnesia
the loss of memories from the point of injury or illness forward