Chapters 11 12 13

Batch Processing
The process of accumulating transaction data until a certain point is reached, then processing those transactions all at once
Data Centraliaztion
Having all data in one central location . Helps ensure data entegrity by requiring data to be updated only in one place if the data changes.
Data redundancy
When the same data exists in more than one place in a database.
Database management system DBMS
A type os speically designed application software that interacts with the user, other applications, and the database to capture and analyze data.
Default Value
The value a database will use for a field unless the user enters another value.
Field
A field where a category of information in a database is stored. Fields are displayed in columns.
Join query
A database query that links two database tables using a common field in both tables and extracts the relevant data from each.
Real time processing
The process of updating a database immediately as changes are made.
Record
A collection of related fields in a database.
Sort
The process of organizing a database into a particular order.
SQL
More powerful commands allow complex work to be done in a single sentence.
Transaction processing system
A system used to keep track of everyday business activities.
Different data types and what each stores
Text=alpahbetic or alphanumeric data
Numeric=numbers
Computational=formulas
Date=dates
Memo=long blocks of text
Object=multimedia files or documents
Hyperlink=a hyperlink to a web page
A good primary key
Drivers license number and a license plate
3 types of databases currently used
relational, object oriented and multidimensional
2 types of reports in a Management information system.
Summary report/Exception report
Knowledge based systems
Natural language processing system/Artificial Intelligence
Authentic server
a server that keeps track of who is logging on to the network and which services on the network are available to each user.
Brute force attack
an attack delivered by specialized hacking software that tries many combinations of letters, numbers, and pieces of a user ID in an attempt to discover a user password.
Dedicated server
a server used to fultill one specific function
Frame
a container designed to hold multiple data packets
Jam signal
a special signal sent to all network nodes, alerting them that a data collision has occured.
Local area network
a network in which the nodes are located within a small geographic area
Mac address
a unique number assigned to a network adapter by the manufacturer
Metropolitan area network
a wide area network that links users in a specific geographic area
Packet screening
examining incoming data packets to ensure they originated from or are authorized by valid users on the internal network
Protocol
a set of rules for exchanging data and communication.
Proxy server
acts as a go-between for computers on the internal network and the external network
Repeater
a device that is installed on a long cable run to amplify a signal
Router
a device that routes packets of data between two or more networks
Wide area network
a network made us of local area networks connected over long distances
Bus Topology
Peer-to-peer networks
Star Topology
Ethernet networks
Cable types
Cable cost for twisted pair extremely low;1,000 mbps bandwidth/ for fiber optic high cost; bandwidth 100 mbps to 2 gbps
3 functions of network adapters
1. they generate high-powered signals to enable network transmissions
2. they are responsible for breaking the data into packets and preparing the packets for transmission across the network.
3. they act as gatekeepers for information flowing to and from the client computer.
Cascading style sheets (CSS)
a list of statements that define in one single location how html/xhtml elements are to be dislayed.
Client/server model
a way of describing typical network functions. client computers request services adn servers provide those services returns the response.
Cloud computing
the process of using the internet to deliver business entertainment or other services that were previously delivered by conventional means.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
the protocol that handles dynamic addressing. part of the transmission control/protocol / internet protocol suite, dhcp takes a pool of ip addresses and shares them with hosts on the network on an as-needed basis.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
the protocol that allows files to be transfered from a web server so that you can see them on your computer by using a browser.
IP address
external entities use to communicate with your networks and is similiar to your home street address.
Optical carrier (OC) line
a backbone, high speed fiber optic line
Root DNS servers
a group of servers maintained throughout the internet to which isp web servers connect to locate the master listings of an entire top-level domain.
Secure sockets layer
a protocol that provides for the encryption of data transmitted using the internet
Static addressing
a means of assigning a internet protocol address that never changes and is most likely assigned manually by a network administrator
Top-level domain
the suffix often of three letters in the domain name that indicates the kind of organization the host is.
Voice over Internet Protocol
free long distance phone calls
What is the purpose of ICANN and W3C
ICANN = IP address internet corporation for assigned names and numbers.
W3C = web 400 member organization; set html standards for the web and protocols for the web.
What things must a packet contain
1. source address
2. destination
3. reassembling instructions
4. data
What is the purpose of the following protocols: FTP, HTTP
ftp = download or upload files
http = looking at hyper text documents, transfer data to a web browser
What is the version of the original IP addressing scheme
TCP/IP / TRANSMISSION CONTROL PROTOCOL
What does an IP address look like? What is an octet? How does it get its name?
197.24.72.157
Octet= each of the four numbers in a dotted decimal number is referred to as an octet.
top level domain=.com, .org, .gov, .edu, .net
second level domain= unique name within a top-level domain. yahoo.com, whitehouse.gov,