CHAPTERS 5 – 8

PAN (Personal Area Network)
a term sometimes used to refer to the interconnection of personal digital devices or consumer electronics within a range of about 30 get (10 meters) and without the use of wires or cables.
LAN (Local Area Network)
a data communications network that connect personal computers within a vary limited geographical area-usually a single building.
MAN (Metropolitan Area Network)
a public high-speed network capable of voice and data transmission within a range of about 50 miles (80 km).
LAN
this technologies are standardized by the institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Project 802 – Local Network Standards.
Node
This is referred to as each connection point on a network.
Network Interface card (NIC)
To connect to a LAN, a computer requires network circuitry referred to as …….?
Network Peripheral or Network-enabled peripheral
is any device that contains network circuitry to directly connect t a network. examples are, printers, scanners, and storage devices.
Network Attached Storage (NAS)
referred to a storage device that directly connects to a network.
Network Device aka Network appliance
is any electronic device that broadcasts network data, boosts signals, or routes data to its destination.
Application server
runs application software for network workstations
File server
stores files that supplies them to workstations on request.
Print server
handles jobs sent to network printers.
Peer-to-Peer mode
files and applications can be shared among workstations operating as _________? Examples of Popular file sharing systems are Gnutella, Kazaa, and BitTorrent
Client/server mode
Networks that include one or more servers
Physical topology
the arrangement of devices in a network is _________?
Star topology
features a central connection point that links cables of handles wireless broadcasts to all workstations and peripherals.
Ring topology
connects all devices in a circle, with each device having exactly two neighbors.
Bus topology
uses a common backbone to connect all network devices.
Mesh topology
connects to each network device to many other network devices. Data traveling on this network can take any of several paths from its destination.
Tree topology
is essentially a blend of star and bus networks. Multiple star networks are connected into a bus configuration by a backbone.
Gateway
is a generic term for any device or software code used to join two networks, even if those networks use different standards.
Communications Channel or a link
is a physical path or frequency for signal transmissions.
Bandwidth
is the transmission capacity of a communications channel. Its digital data is usually measured in bits per second.
Broadband
This is referred to as High Bandwidth communications systems, such as cable TV and DSL
Narrowband
Systems with less capacity, such as dial-up internet access is referred to as ______?
Communications protocol
refers to a set of rules for efficiently transmitting data from one network to another.
Handshaking
this is referred to when two computers on a network might negotiate their communications protocols
Packet
is a parcel of data that is sent across a computer network.
Circuit switching
some communications networks, such as telephone system, use this technology
Packet switching
this divides a message into several packets that can be routed independently to their destination.
Digital
depicted as stepped wave.
Analog Signal
depicted as smooth wave
MAC Address
a unique number assigned to a network interface card when it is manufactured.
IP Address
a series of numbers used to identify a network device. It is separated into four sections by periods for the convenience of human readers.
Octet
in binary it is represented by eight bits.
DHCP (dynamic host configuration protocol)
designed to automatically distribute IP Address.
Wired network
is one of that uses cables to connect network devices.
Ethernet
a packet is broadcast to every device, but is accepted only by the device to which is it addressed. Data travels on a first-come, first-served basis. If two workstations attempt to send at the same time, a collision occurs.
CSMA/CD Protocol
takes care of situations in which two network devices attempt to transmit packets at the same time.
Ethernet adapter
(also called an ethernet card or NIC)
You can purchase and install this if your computer does not come with a port
Network Hub
is a device that links two or more nodes of a wired network.
Network Switch
is a more sophisticated connection device that sends data only to the devices specified as the destination.
Network router
is a network device that can ship data from one network to another.
Home PNA
is a network technology that utilizes existing telephone wires or coaxial cables to connect network devices.
Powerline network
transmits network data as radio signals over the wires that supply electricity to wall outlets.
Wireless network
transports data from one device to another without the use of cables or wires.
RF Signals (Radio Frequency Signals)
commonly called radio waves are sent and received by a transceiver that is equipped with an antenna.
Transceiver
a combination of both a transmitter and receiver.
Microwaves
provide another option for transporting data over wireless networks. This can be aimed in just a single direction.
Infrared Light
can also carry data signals, but only for short distances and with a clear line of sight.
Bluetooth
short range wireless network technology thats designed to make its own connections between electronic devices, without wires, cables, or any direct action from a user.
Piconet
A bluetooth network is sometimes called a _____?
Wi-Fi
refers to a set of wireless networking technologies defined by IEEE 802.11 standards that are compatible with Ethernet.
MIMO (Multiple-input multiple-output)
technology uses two or more antennas to essentially send multiple sets of signals between network devices.
Wi-Fi adapter (also called a Wi-Fi card or wireless network controller)
can be plugged into a USB port and be used to upgrade any type of computer.
Wireless Ad-hoc network
transmit from one workstations to another, whereas an infrastructure network uses a centralized access point or router to relay signals to workstations.
Wireless Infrastructure Network
uses a centralized broadcasting devices, such as a wireless access point or router.
Wireless access point
is a device that transmits and receives wireless signals.
Wireless Router
is a wireless access point that also includes routing circuitry designed to connect a Wi-Fi network to the internet.
MiFi
is a brand name for a compact, mobile, wireless router offered by Novatel Wireless. The term is sometimes applied to similar routers produced by other manufacturers that can form a network of about five clients.
SSID (service set identifier)
is the name of wireless network. This helps you log into the right network.
Shared resources
hardware, software, and data made available for authorized network users to access.
Drive mapping
assigns a letter to a storage device located n a network workstation.
Homegroup
is a collection of trusted networked computers that automatically share files and folders.
LAN Jacking
a practice with wireless network data floating freely through the air, hackers have an easy time intercepting signals by cruising through a business district or neighborhood with a Wi-Fi enabled notebook omputer
Wireless Encryption
scrambles the data transmitted between wireless devices and then unscrambles the data only on devices that have valid encryption key.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy)
it was designed to provide a level of confidentiality similar to that of a wired network.
WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access)
Offers stronger protection by making sure that packets have not been intercepted or tampered with in any way.
PSK (pre-shared key)
also referred to as personal mode, is a type of WPA used on most home networks. All workstation has the same key to connect to the network.
Router Software
keeps track of everyone who is accessing a network, and it can be used to uncover intrusions.
Wireless Network Key (network security key)
is the basis for scrambling and unscrambling the data transmitted between wireless devices.
Encryption
transforms a message in such way that its contents are hidden from unauthorized readers. It is designed to keep messages secret.
Plaintext
an original message that has not yet been encrypted
Ciphertext
referred to an encrypted message.
Decryption
the reverse process-converting ciphertext into plaintext
Cryptographic Algorithm
is a procedure for encrypting or decrypting a message.
Cryptographic key (usually just called a key)
is a word, number, or phrase that must be known to encrypt or decrypt a message
Weak encryption
Caesar’s simple substitution key is an example because it is easy to decrypt even without the algorithm and key.
Strong encryption
is loosely defined as “very difficult to break”.
AES (Advance Encryption Standard)
the technology used for WPA2, is one of the strongest crytographic algorithms.
Symmetric key encryption
in which the key is used to encrypt a message is also used to decrypt the message.
Public key encryption (PKE)
eliminates the key-distribution problem by using one key to encrypt a message, but another key to decrypt the message.
Narrowband
Dial-up Internet access is an example of a(n)_____________ communications system.
Ciphertext
____________ is a crucial technology for e-commerce and email.
DHCP
A protocol know as ________ is designed to automatically distribute IP addresses.
Star
Thomas is designing a wired home network with six nodes for a friend. His friend has asked that the network be configured such that, if one link fails, the rest of the network will still function.
1G
Data transport rates depend on the technology of the cellular system. The generation of cellular technology associated with analog voice service is _______?
ICANN
domain names are assigned by _______?
5 Mbps
3G technologies have speeds ranging from 200 Kbp to
You need your own domain name if
you have your own Web site
Cable internet service needs
circuitry to handle Ethernet protocols and cable modem
Swarm
A group of computers temporarily networked to download a file is a ______?
FQDN
this is a easy way to remember most Internet servers name
Screen size
the disadvantage of WAP-enabled device is their___________?
Cache
when your browser fetches pages and graphics to form a Web page, it stores then in temporary files on your hard drive called a web________?
50KB
Melissa wants to ensure that the resume she attaches to the e-mail messages she is sending to the potential employers will successfully make it to them. She should try to limit the size of the attachment to ____ or less for dial-up connections.
For the next search, Elizabeth wants only Web pages containing the complete phrase “Mars exploration.” Which screen operator should she use to formulate the query?
quotation marks
When you view a page infested with a(n)_______, an HTTP set-cookie request automatically goes to a third party server, which may set a cookie on your computer for later retrieval or record your IP address.
Web bug
A(n)________ adds HTML tags to a document, spreadsheet, or other text-based file to create an HTML document that can be displayed by a browser.
HTML conversion utility
GET
is the most frequently used HTTP method
A Web server’s response to a browser’s request includes HTTP _________ that indicates whether the browser’s request could be filled.
Status code
Cookie
enables a Web server to keep track of your activity and compile a list of the your purchases.
A _______ watermark is a pattern of bits inserted at various places in an image or a content stream that can be used to track, identify, verify, and control content use.
Digital
The _______ bitmap graphics file format compresses bitmap data without losing any data and supports trillions of colors.
PNG
Copy
protection refers to technologies designed to prohibit consumers from copying content.
After videotaping her sister’s wedding with an analog video camera, Nancy decided to edit out some of the footage using her computer. She finds that, although she has connected her camera, with the videotape, to her computer, she cannot access the video footage. Why?
The analog video footage must be first converted into a digital form.
A(n)__________ is a device that contains a variety of input and output jacks, plus audio-processing circuitry.
Sound card
Adobe Illustrator
is not an video editing software
Graphics files that contain both bitmap and vector data are called________.
metafiles
The audio CDs you buy at your favorite music store are recorded at a sampling rate of
44.1 kHz
Professionals opt to have at least ____ of RAM on their computer’s hard disk.
4 GB
When should you use a digital camera rather than a scanner?
When you want to create an image of a real object.
Microwaves cannot be aimed in a single direction and have less carrying capacity that a radio waves.
False
MAC addresses are used for some low-level network functions and can also be employed to establish network security.
True
IP Addresses can be assigned by ISPs or system managers.
True
Accessing Internet mobility is possible with most of todays wired or wireless Internet technologies.
False
One of the most common ways of gaining unauthorized access to a network is by looking for open ports.
True
Cloud computing is the term given to analyzing cloud patterns and, with the help of the computer, predicting the weather.
False
The www in a URL is part of a domain name
False
Some modems allow you to temporarily suspend data transfers while answering a voice call.
True
You must pay for a domain name.
True
To use portable satellite technology you must take your satellite with you .
True
BitTorrent uses P2P technology
True
All IP addresses are dynamic
False
Most Firewall software is preconfigured to block only unnecessarily open ports targeted by hackers.
True
The framework for an HTML document consists of two sections: a head and a body.
True
HTML is called a markup language because authors mark uo their documents by inserting HTML tags, which represent special instructions that specify how the document should appear when displayed on a computer screen or printed.
True
HTTP is a markup language that works with TCP/IP to deliver Web resources to the desktop.
False
When configuring local e-mail, the incoming and outgoing servers must have the same settings.
False
E-mail is based on store-and-foward technology.
True
A C2C e-commerce transaction occurs when individual consumers purchase goods and services from online merchants.
False
A conversion process called MIME provides a clever way of disguising digital photos, sounds, and other media as plain ASCII code that can travel over the Internet as e-mail attachments.
True
Many search engines keep records of your query
True
S-HTTP creates a secure connection between a client and a server over which any amount of data can be sent securely.
False
Each pixel in a monochrome bitmap grid, is stored as a bit.
True
Free file-sharing sites, popular in the 1990s, had a devastating effect on the recording industry.
True
An infrared port will transfer a digital photo from a camera to a computer faster that a serial USB, or Firewall port.
False
Digital video formats are often referred to ad container formats, because they serve as a receptacle for all the elements of a video.
True
With videos shown on a small computer screen at a fairly low resolution, recording with an inexpensive camera will not make a difference on the quality of the final video.
False
A vector graphic resizes better than a comparable bitmap graphic.
True
A scanner creates a vector graphic.
False
Whether you acquire an image from a digital camera or a scanner, bitmap graphics tend to require very little storage space.
False