CIS 13 Lecture 7, 8, 10, 11

A connected system of objects or people
Network
A collection of computers and other hardware devices connected together so users can share hardware, software, and data, and electronically communicate
Computer network
Why learn about networks? Two reasons.
1) It is all around us, and
2) use them all the time at home, jobs, schools, airports, hospitals
Networking hardware: Used to connect a computer to a network or the Internet
Network adapter
Network adapter is also called _____ when in the form of an expansion card
Network interface card (NIC)
Networking hardware: Device that connects a computer to the Internet or to another computer (cable, DSL, etc.)
Modem
Networking hardware: Connects wired/ wireless devices in a network
Wired/ Wireless router
Networking hardware for connecting devices and networks: Amplifies signals along a network
Repeater
Networking hardware for connecting devices and networks: Repeater for a wireless network
Range extender
Networking hardware for connecting devices and networks: Typically connects both wired and wireless devices in a network
Wireless router
Networking hardware for connecting devices and networks: Central device that connects all of the devices on the network and sends data to all devices
Hub
Networking hardware for connecting devices and networks: Connects devices in a network like a hub but only sends data to the device for which the data is intended
Switch
Networking hardware for connecting devices and networks: Used to grant network access to wireless client services
Wireless access point
Networking hardware for connecting devices and networks: Used to connect two networks together usually on a local network
Bridges
Name two network communication architectures
Client-server networks and peer-to-peer (P2P) networks
All computers at the same time; this is
Peer-to-peer server
Network topologies: Name five ways to arrange a network
1) Bus, 2) Star, 3) Tree, 4) Mesh, 5) Ring
Any system or device connected to a network is also called
Node
PAN
Personal area network
HAN
Home area network
LAN
Local area network
CAN
Campus area network
MAN
Metropolitan network
WAN
Wide area network
SAN
Storage area network
VPN
Virtual private network
Data transmission characteristics: The amount of data that can be transferred in a given period of time
Bandwidth
Bandwidth is measured in
BPS (bits per second)
Data transmission characteristics: Voice and music data in its natural form, for instance, is
Analog
Voice and music data in its natural form is _____, and data stored on a computer is _____
Analog, digital
Most networking media send data using _____
Digital signal
Digital signal is represented by
0s and 1s
_____, such as those used by conventional _____, represent data with _____
Analog signals, telephone systems, continuous waves
Serial transmission: _ at a time
1 bit
Parallel transmission: _ at a time
1 byte (8 bits)
_____ transmission is frequently used within computer components (such as buses), and is used for some wireless networking applications
Parallel
Networking media typically use _____ transmission
Serial
Serial transmission needs to be transmitted by using a technique in order to organize the bits being transferred. Name three types of transmission techniques
Synchronous transmission, asynchronous transmission, isochronous transmission
Data is organized into groups or blocks of data, which are transferred at regular, specified intervals
Synchronous transmission
Most data transmissions within a computer and over a network are ______
Synchronous transmission
Data is sent when it is ready to be sent, without being synchronized. To identify the bits that belong in each bute, a start bit and stop bit are used at the beginning and end of the byte respectively. This overhead makes _____ less efficient and so it is not as widely used as _____.
Asynchronous transmission, synchronous transmission
Data is sent at the same time as other related data to support certain types of real-time applications that require the different types of data to be delivered at the proper speed for that application
Isochronous transmission
Data is sent in blocks and the blocks are timed so thatt the receiving device knows when they will arrive
Synchronous transmissions
Data is sent one byte at a time, along with a start bit and a stop bit
Asynchronous transmissions
The entire transmission is sent together after requesting and being assigned the bandwidth necessary for all the data to arrive at the correct time
Isochronous transmission
Transmission direction: Data travels in a single direction only
Simplex transmission
Transmission direction: Data can travel in either direction, but only in one direction at a time
Half-duplex transmission
Data can move in both directions at the same time
Full-duplex transmission
Data uses a dedicated path from the sender to the recipient
Circuit-switched networks
Data is sent as individual packets, which are assembled at the recipient’s destination
Packet-switched networks
Data is broadcast to all nodes within range, the designated recipient retrieves the data
Broadcast networks
The most common example of _____ is a conventional telephone system
Circuit-switched networks
The technique used for data sent over the Internet is _____.
Packet switching
With packet switching, messages are separated into small units called
Packets
Data is sent out (typically in packets) to all nodes on a network and is retrieved only by intended recipient. _____ is used primarily with LANs
Broadcasting
Wireless networks: Data is typically sent via _____
Radio waves
A set of rules for a particular situation
Protocol
A set of rules that determine how devices on a network communicate
Communication protocol
The most widely used communications protocol – used with the Internet
TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol)
A set of criteria or requirements approved by a recognized standards organization
Standard
Address how networked computers connect and communicate
Networking standards
The range of all possible frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
Electro-magnetic spectrum
Electro-magnetic spectrum is measured in
Hertz (Hz)