CIS 470 Finals

The two principal catalysts for the Information Age have been
computers and communication networks.
Which statement best supports the conclusion that society can control whether to adopt a new technology?
No new nuclear power plants were built in the United States for 25 years after the accident at Three Mile Island.
Tablets, abacuses, and manual tables
are examples of aids to manual calculating.
The mechanical adding machines of Pascal and Leibniz were not widely adopted because
there were unreliable.
The calculating machine of Georg and Edvard Sheutz
a) computed the values of polynomial functions.
b) typeset the results of its computations.
c) performed calculations faster than they could be done manually.
d) performed calculations more reliably than they could be done manually.
ANSWER: All of the above.
Which of the following phrases does not describe the Gilded Age in America?
widespread electrification
Which of the following was not a result of the adoption of mechanical calculators?
Higher salaries of bookkeepers
Which of the following was not a feature of cash registers in the early 1900s?
Ability to compute amount of change to give customer
Punched card tabulation was invented by Herman Hollerith, an employee of
the Census Bureau.
Which of the following phrases best describes a system that inputs data, performs one or more calculations, and produces output data?
data-processing system
The first commercial electronic digital computers were produced just after (LITO)
World War II.
Programming languages were developed in order to
make programming faster and less error-prone.
Which of the following was not an early programming language?
DATA-FLOW
Software that allows multiple users to edit and run their programs simultaneously on the same computer is called
a time-sharing system
A semiconductor device containing transistors, capacitors, and resistors is called
an integrated circuit.
Which Cold War program played an important role in advancing integrated circuit technology?
Minuteman II ballistic missile
Which company produced the System/360, a family of 19 compatible mainframe computers?
IBM
The company that invented the microprocessor is
Intel
Which of the following was not an activity of the People’s Computer Company, a not-for-profit corporation in the San Francisco area?
Developing the world’s first graphical user interface
Who wrote “An Open Letter to Hobbyists,” complaining about software theft?
Bill Gates
A key application that first made personal computers more attractive to business was
the spreadsheet program.
The software company that provided IBM with the operating system for its PC was
Microsoft.
The first electronic networking technology widely used in the United States was the
telegraph.
The Pony Express went out of business when
the transcontinental telegraph was completed.
Alexander Graham Bell invented the harmonic or musical telegraph, which enabled
music to be send over a telegraph wire.
Nearly all early telephones were installed in businesses, because
leasing a telephone was expensive.
A typewriter that prints a message transmitted over a telegraph line is called a
teletype
Guglielmo Marconi originally conceived of the radio as a way to
transmit telegraph messages without wires
The power of radio as a medium of mass communication was demonstrated in 1938 when Orson Welles put on a dramatization of
War of the Worlds
ARPA Director J.C.R. Licklider conceived of a Galactic Network that would
facilitate the exchange of programs and data.
One of the first and most important applications of the ARPANET was
email.
What term is used to describe a high-speed Internet connection?
broadband
Which country has the fastest broadband connections on average?
South Korea
A common name for a wireless Internet access point is
hotspot.
The first alphabet to represent vowels as well as consonants was developed by the
Greeks.
In the fourth century the codex replaced the scroll because
it was more durable, and it was much easier to look up a particular passage.
Hypertext is supposed to mimic
the associative memory of human beings.
What visionary invented the computer mouse and demonstrated windows, email, and live network videoconferencing at “the mother of all demos” in 1968?
Douglas Engelbart
The first popular personal computer with a graphical user interface was the
Apple Macintosh.
The World Wide Web is the creation of
Tim Berners-Lee
A Web browser enables you to
view Web pages.
What is the name of a program that follows hyperlinks, collecting information about Web sites?
spider
According to James Moor, taking “the ethical point of view” means
deciding that other people and their core values are worthy of your respect.
An association of people organized under a system of rules designed to advance the good of its members over time is called a
Society
Rules of conduct describing what people ought and ought not to do in various situations are called
Morality
Ethics is
a. a rational examination of people’s moral beliefs.(pg51)
b. A branch of philosophy
c. One way to determine which activities are good and which are bad
d. A field of study more than 2,000 years old
ANSWER: All of the above
A relativist claims that
there are no universal moral principles.
Objectivism is based on the idea that
morality has an existence outside the human mind.
The divine command theory is an example of
objectivism.
Which of the following is an argument in favor of the divine command theory?
It is fallacious to equate “the good” with “God.”
Ethical egoism is
based on determining long-term beneficial consequences.
Which of the following is an argument in favor of ethical egoism?
The community can benefit when individuals put their well-being first.
According to Kant, our sense of “ought to” is called
dutifulness.
According to Kant, the moral value of an action depends upon
the underlying moral rule.
According to the second formulation of the Categorical Imperative,
it is wrong for one person to “use” another
The Principle of Utility is also called
the Greatest Happiness Principle.
Two philosophers closely associated with utilitarianism are
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
Utilitarianism is an example of
a consequentialist theory.
The problem of moral luck is raised as a criticism of
act utilitarianism.
Utilitarianism does not mean “the greatest good of the greatest number” because
it focuses solely on “the greatest good” and pays no attention to how “the good” is distributed
Thomas Hobbes called life without rules and a means of enforcing them
the state of nature
An early proponent of the social contract was
Jean-Jacque Rousseau
A right that another can guarantee by leaving you alone to exercise the right is called a
negative right.
A right that is guaranteed without exception is called a
absolute right.
The idea that social and economic inequalities must be to the greatest benefit of the least- advantaged members of society is called
the difference principle
Modern writers often refer to moral virtues as
virtues of character.
A character trait that prevents a human being from flourishing or become truly happy is called a
vice
According to Aristotle, moral virtue results from
a) a good education.
b) living a long life.
c) a happy marriage and loving family.
d) repetition of the appropriate acts.
ANSWER: All of the above.
According to Aristotle, deriving pleasure from a virtuous act is a sign that you
have developed the virtue.
The volume of spam is increasing because
a) companies have found it to be effective.
b) it is 100 times less expensive than a traditional flyer sent via the U.S. mail.
c) some people respond to spam advertisements.
ANSWER: All of the above
A Korean cybercafé where people play on-line, persistent games is called a
PC bang.
A wiki is
A Web site that allows multiple people to contribute and edit its content.
A blog is
a personal journal kept on the Web.
Many people are now using the Web not simply to download content, but to build communities and upload and share content they have created. This trend has been given the name
Web 2.0
Which of these is not an example of direct censorship?
self-censorship
According to John Stuart Mill’s Principle of Harm, the only ground on which the government should intervene in the conduct of an individual is when
it would prevent harm to others.
In the United States, freedom of expression
is not an absolute right.
A Web filter is a piece of software that
prevents certain Web pages from being displayed by your browser.
Which of the following laws was upheld as constitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court?
Child Internet Protection Act
Sexting refers to
A, B, and C.
Sexting is causing a legal crisis because
police and prosecutors are treating sexting as a felony offense.
How many Americans are victims of identity theft each year?
About 10 million.
Cyberbullying is defined as inflicting psychological harm on another person using
A and B.
Kimberly Young’s test for Internet addiction is based on the diagnosis of
pathological gambling.
The Enlightenment view of addiction is that
people are responsible for the choices they make.
Which philosopher argued in The Second Treatise of Government that people have a natural right to property?
John Locke
Intellectual property is a unique product of the human intellect that
has commercial value.
The value of intellectual property is recognized
a) in the Constitution of the United States.
b) in the free market.
c) in legislation passed by the U.S. Congress.
d) through court decisions.
ANSWER: All of the above
The proper noun “Kleenex” is protected
with a trademark.
Which of the following rights is not a right of a copyright holder?
The right to prevent others from producing competitive works
Since the first Copyright Act was passed in 1790
a) Congress has repeatedly increased the number of years of copyright protection.
b) Congress has made more kinds of intellectual property protected under copyright.
c) Congress has attempted to reconcile American copyright law with European copyright
law.
ANSWER: All of the above
Sometimes it is legal to reproduce a copyrighted work without the permission of the copyright holder. These circumstances are called
fair use.
The Audio Home Recording Act of 1992
a) protects the right of consumers to make backup copies of CDs.
b) requires manufacturers of digital audio records to incorporate the Serial Copyright Management System.
c) requires manufacturers of digital audio recording devices and blank digital media to pay a royalty to songwriters and music publishers.
ANSWER: All of the above
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Sony v. Universal City Studios established the concept of
time shifting.
The decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit in RIAA v. Diamond Multimedia Systems Inc. established the concept of
space shifting.
The decision by the U.S. Court of Appeals, Ninth Circuit in Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corporation established that the display of thumbnail images by a search engine
is a fair use of those images.
Google Books is
an effort to scan millions of books and make all their words searchable.
In 2005 Sony BMG Music Entertainment made headlines by
shipping CDs that secretly installed a rootkit on Windows computers.
After the RIAA sued Napster,
Napster went off-line.
Suppose you buy a Microsoft game at the bookstore. Under current U.S. law, which of the following actions is illegal?
a) Copying it onto a CD to give or sell to someone else
b) Preloading it onto the hard disk of a computer being sold
c) Distributing it over the Internet
ANSWER: All of the above are illegal
The Digital Millennium Copyright Act is controversial, in part, because
a) it extends the length of time that a piece of intellectual property is protected by copyright.
b) it makes it illegal for consumers to circumvent encryption placed on digital media.
c) it extends copyright protection to music broadcast over the Internet.
d) it increases penalties for on-line services providers whose customers are misusing
copyrighted materials.
ANSWER: All of the above
Apple’s digital rights management system called FairPlay prevented
a) songs from being played on more than five computers.
b) songs from being copied onto CDs more than seven times.
c) music purchased from the iTunes Store from playing on non-Apple MP3 players.
ANSWER: All of the above
Compared with other peer-to-peer networks, BitTorrent takes advantage of the fact that broadband Internet connections
provide higher speeds for downloading than for uploading.
The court’s ruling in Apple Computer v. Franklin Computer Corp. established that
object programs can be copyrighted.
The Linux operating system is an example of
open-source software.