CIS Ch. 6

Internet Backbone
A network is a network of high-capacity routers and fiber-optic communications links that provides the main routes for data traffic across the Internet
Network Service Providers (NSP)
Maintain backbone links and routers

Examples: AT&T, Cogent Communications, Hurricane Electric, Sprint, and Verizon

Network Access Points (NAPs)
Ties together NSP equipment and links
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
A company that offers Internet access to individuals, businesses, and smaller ISPs
Modem
Contains circuity that converts the data-carrying signals from your computer to signals that can travel over various communications channels
Protocol Suite
A combination of protocols that work together
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)
Breaks a message or file into packets
IP (Internet Protocol)
Responsible for addressing packets so that they can be routed to their destination
Static IP Address
A permanently assigned address
Dynamic IP Address
Temporarily assigned address
Always-On Connection
Linked on your ISP and is online whenever your computer and model are on, even if you are not actively accessing the Internet
Domain Name System (DMS)
Every domain name corresponds to a unique IP address that has been entered into this huge database
Any computer that hosts this database is referred to as
Domain Name Server
DNS Cache Poisoning
Been used by governments to keep citizens away from Web sites that supply politically or culturally inflammatory information
ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers)
Recognized by the United States and other governments as the global organization that coordinates technical management of the Internet’s Domain Name System
Latency
The elapsed time for data to make a round trip from point A to point B and back to point A
Traceroute
Records a packet’s path in addition to its round-trip speed
Upstream Speed
The rate of data that is uploaded from your computer to the Internet
Downstream Speed
The rate of data downloaded to your computer
Asymmetric Internet Connection
When upstream speeds differ from downstream speeds
Symmetric Internet Connection
When upstream and downstream speeds are the same
Fixed Internet Access
Links your computer to an ISP from a stationary point, such as a wall socket or roof-mounted antenna
Portable Internet Access
Allows you to easily move your access device, as in the case of vehicle-mounted satellite dishes that can be deployed when the vehicle is parked
Mobile Internet Access
Allows you to use the Internet as you are on the go, such as using a cell phone to collect your e-mail while you are traveling by train
Dial-Up Connection
A fixed Internet connection that uses a voiceband modem and telephone lines to transport data between your computer and your ISP
Voiceband Modem
Converts the signals from your computer into audible analog signals that can travel over telephone lines
DSL (Digital Subscriber Line)
A high-speed, digital, always-on, Internet access technology that runs over standard phone lines
DSL Modem
A device that connects a computer to a telephone line and converts computer data signals into signals compatible with DSL
DSL Filter
Prevents voiceband signals from interfering with DSL signals
Cable Internet Service
A means of distributing always-on broadband Internet access over the same infrastructure that offers cable television service

Examples: Comcast, Cox, and Charter

What are the two requirements for cable Internet service?
To handle Ethernet protocols and a cable modem, which converts your computer’s signal into one that can travel over the CATV network
DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification)
A data transport technology that includes security filters
Satellite Internet Service
A means of distributing always-on, high-speed, asymmetric Internet access by broadcasting signals to and from a personal satellite dish
Satellite Modem
A device that modulates the data signals from a computer into a frequency band that can be carried to the satellite dish, where it is converted to another frequency, amplified, and transmitted
Fixed Wireless Internet Service
Designed to offer Internet access to homes and businesses by broadcasting data signals over areas large enough to cover most cities and lying areas
Wi-Fi Hotspot
An area in which the public can access a Wi-Fi Network that offers Internet service

Examples: Coffee shops, RV parks, hotels, community centers, college campuses, and airports

WAP (Wireless Application Protocol)
A communications protocol that provides Internet access from handheld devices, such as cell phones
For the real Internet, cellular service providers offer data services, sometimes referred to as
Mobile Broadband
MiFi
A brand name for a compact, mobile, wireless router offered by Novatel Wireless
Tethering
The ability to serve as a Wi-Fi hotspot