Cis Vocabulary Intellectual Property Rights Issues, Database & Artificial Intelligence, Telecommunication & Internet

Copyright
Protects the words, music, and other expressions for the life of the copyright holder plus 70 years. The fair use doctrine describes when and how copyrighted material can be legally used. The Digital Millennium Copyright Act provides global copyright protection.
Trademark
Protects a unique symbol or word used by a business to identify a product or service.
Trade Secret
Protects secrets or proprietary information of individuals and organizations as long as the trade secret is adequately protected.
Patent
Protects an invention by giving the patent holder a monopoly on the use of the invention for 20 years after the patent application was submitted.
Privacy
involves the illegal copying, use, and distribution of digital intellectual property, such as software, music, and movies.
Plagiarism
involves taking credit for someone else’s intellectual property, typically a written idea, by claiming it as your own.
Digital rights management, or DRM
is technology that protects digital forms of intellectual property by restricting the number of devices and applications on which a file can be opened and the number of times that the file can be copied and burned to disk.
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA)
is a U.S. copyright law designed to reduce illegal digital media copying by criminalizing the production, distribution, and use of technologies designed to circumvent DRM technologies.
database management system or DBMS
consists of a group of programs that manipulate the data within a database. It provides an interface between the database and the user, or between the database and application programs.
Data Hierarchy
refers to the manner in which data in a database is organized into sequential levels of detail.
database key
is a field in a table used to identify a record, such as EmployeeNumber.
Record
A collection of fields about a specific entity
Key
A field in a record that is used to identify the record
Primary key
A field within a database table that uniquely identifies the record
relational database
organizes data into multiple tables that are related by common fields called keys
schema
is a graphical representation of the structure of a database.
data dictionary
provides a detailed description of each field and table in a database
Structured Query Language (SQL)
is a popular data manipulation language used by the vast majority of database programmers and administrators for manipulating data to meet the needs of the users
data warehouse
is a very large database that holds important information from a variety of sources
Data mining
refers to the process of extracting information from a data warehouse or data mart
distributed database
takes available data stored in multiple locations and makes it appear as a single collection
data center
is a climate-controlled building or set of buildings that house servers that store and deliver mission-critical information and services
database administrator or DBA
is a skilled and trained computer professional who directs all activities related to an organization’s database, including providing security from intruders
AI
refers to the art and science of creating computer systems that simulate human thought and behavior
Conventional AI
also called symbolic AI, logical AI, or neat AI—uses programming that emphasizes statistical analysis to calculate the probability of various outcomes in order to find the best solution
expert system (ES)
is a form of conventional AI that is programmed to function like a human expert in a particular field or area
Computational intelligence
is an offshoot of AI that employs methodologies such as neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation to set up a system whereby the software can develop intelligence through an iterative learning process
neural network
or neural net, uses software to simulate the functioning of the neurons in a human brain
Turing Test
was devised by Alan Turing as a method of determining if a machine exhibits human intelligence
Singularity
or more specifically, the technological Singularity, is the point in time at which computers exceed humans in intelligence, launching a new era of innovation
Robotics
involves developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision or are tedious or hazardous for humans
Computer vision
vision combines hardware (cameras and scanners) and AI software that permit computers to capture, store, and interpret visual images and pictures
Natural language processing
uses AI techniques to enable computers to generate and understand natural human languages, such as English
Pattern recognition
is an area of AI that develops systems that are trained to recognize patterns in data

Type of Pattern Recognition:
Speech, Handwriting, and Facial Recognition

intelligent agent
digital assistant, or bot, consists of programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program
Artificial Creativity
creativity is a branch of AI that works to program computers to express themselves through art, music, poetry, and other outlets
Telecommunications signals
signals are analog or digital electronic transmissions for the purpose of communication.
Telecommunications media
include anything that carries a signal and creates an interface between a sending device and a receiving device
Radio spectrum
part of the electromagnetic spectrum, refers to all of the frequencies available for radio waves from about 10 KHz to 300 GHz and their assigned uses.
Telecommunications devices
include the wide variety of computer hardware designed to support telecommunications activities for individuals and businesses.
router
is a network device that manages network traffic by evaluating messages and routing them over the fastest path to their destination.
Telecommunications software
is software based on telecommunications protocols used to control, monitor, and troubleshoot data traveling over a telecommunications network.
A cellular carrier
is a company that builds and maintains a cellular network and provides cell phone service to the public.
A cellular plan
defines the terms of service provided by a cellular carrier to which a cellular user subscribes.
Cellular services
include specific features of a cell phone plan beyond voice communication, such as text messaging, high-speed Internet, and streamed media. OPTIONS: Data plan
Text messaging
Picture & video messaging
Push to talk
Maps & navigation
Mobile phone
refers to the handset used by the subscriber to communicate on the cellular network.
WI-FI
short for wireless fidelity) is wireless networking technology that uses access points to wirelessly connect users to networks within a range of 250-1000 feet (75-300 meters
WiMAX
which stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, also known as IEEE 802.16, is a fourth-generation wireless broadband technology that evolved from Wi-Fi to provide faster Internet access at a longer range.
Long Term Evolution (LTE)
is a fourth-generation wireless broadband technology that was developed to allow GSM cellular technology to evolve to provide very high-speed Internet access.
BLUETOOTH
(named after a 10th-century Danish king) enables a wide assortment of digital devices to communicate directly with each other wirelessly over short distances.
RFID, or radio frequency identification
uses tiny transponders in tags that can be attached to merchandise or other objects and read wirelessly using an RFID reader, typically for inventory and supply chain management or to facilitate commercial transactions.
A GPS, or global positioning system
uses satellites to pinpoint the location of objects on earth.
personal area network (PAN
is the interconnection of personal information technology devices, typically wirelessly, within the range of an individual.
Home Network
network is a local area network designed for personal or business use in the home
local area network (LAN)
is a privately owned computer network that connects PCs, servers, printers, and other devices within a facility or local geographic area.
metropolitan area network (MAN)
is a network that interconnects users with computer resources in a region or geographic area larger than that covered by even a large local area network (LAN) but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network.
wide area network (WAN)
connects LANs and MANs between cities, across countries, and around the world, using microwave and satellite transmission or telephone lines.
Internet history
is relatively short, dating back only to around 1970. In that time, the Internet has had as great an impact as any invention, and its story has only just begun.
Internet backbone
refers to the main Internet pathways and connections – analogous to the interstate highway system – along which data travels the fastest. It is made up of the many national and international telecommunication networks that are owned by major telecom companies including AT&T, Sprint and Verizon—the same companies and networks that provide telephone service.
TCP/IP
IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) is a set of specifications that’s an upgrade of IPv4, allowing source and destination addresses to pass packets over a network.
Internet service provider (ISP)
A company that provides individuals and organizations with access to the Internet is
Client/server
is a network architecture in which one computer or program (the client) makes a service request from another computer or program (the server), which provides the service.
Peer-to-peer (P2P)
is a network architecture that does not utilize a central server but facilitates communication directly between clients with computers acting as both client and server.
Domain Name System (DNS)
maintains a database of all the domain names and IP addresses used on the Internet and acts like a phonebook, supplying information to Internet nodes and routers that work in harmony to get data packets to their final destination.
Port
is an address used by clients and servers that is associated with a specific service.
Voice over IP (VoIP)
refers to technologies that support voice communications using the Internet Protocol over data networks.
Internet2
is a research and development consortium led by more than 200 U.S. universities and supported by partnerships with industry and government to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies for tomorrow’s Internet.
web browser, or just browser
(sometimes called a web client), such as Chrome, Internet Explorer, Safari, or Firefox, is used to request webpages from web servers, interpret the HTML code in the webpage that is delivered, and display the content onscreen.
Web Server
refers to software that fulfills webpage requests from web clients and to the computers that run such software.
Uniform Resource Locator, more commonly called a URL
acts as a webpage address, incorporating the domain name of the web server and the location of the webpage file on the server.
Host Name
Name is often referred to as a Domain Name or Resource Name. URLs most commonly reference web pages (http and https, the latter for secure web sites), but are also used for file transfer (ftp), email (mailto), file access (file), database access (JDBC), and other application types.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)
is the primary markup language used to specify the formatting of a webpage.
XML (Extensible Markup Language
provides a method for describing and classifying Internet-delivered data so that it is easier to organize and manage.
Cascading Style Sheets or CSS
allows easy application of visual styles for fonts, colors, layouts, and other page attributes to create visual themes for webpages and sites.
Web development software
allows developers to create webpages more easily using a word-processing-style environment and automating complex coding activities.
Cookie
sometimes called an HTTP cookie, is a small text file placed on a user’s computer by a web server in order to identify the user whenever he or she returns to visit a website.
Plug in
also called an extension or add-on, works with a web browser to offer extended services such as audio players, video, animation, 3D graphics viewers, and interactive media.
Web Programming
refers to the development of software written to run either in a web browser or on a web server, using web-based input and output.
Really Simple Syndication, or RSS
, is a web technology used to automatically deliver frequently updated web content, such as blogs, podcasts, and news, in a standardized fashion.
Cloud Service
include computing services provided over the Internet in three categories: infrastructure, platform, and software.
Cloud Models
that serve various environments, including private clouds, community clouds, public clouds, and hybrid clouds.
Search Engine
is a valuable software tool that enables users to find information on the web by specifying words that are key to their topics of interest—keywords.
Web Portal
is a webpage that combines useful information and links, and acts as an entry point to the web—the first page you open when you begin browsing the web at home or at work.
Internet Communications
include text-based communications like email and instant messaging, voice communications like Voice over IP (VoIP), video communications, and a variety of group and community forums.
Online information
refers to information of all kinds—business, personal, governmental, factual, opinionated, and even inaccurate—that is delivered over the Internet and web.
Online News
refers to newspapers, magazines, journals, news radio and television, and blogs that deliver news and information about current events on the web.
Financial Services
support money management, loans, investments, and transactions for individuals, businesses, and organizations
Online educating
refers to websites designed to educate or support education and training.
Online travel
refers to websites and services that support various travel activities, such as preparing for travel, finding your way around new environments, reserving flights and lodging, booking tours and activities, and renting vehicles
maps & geolocation
technologies provide geographic services for finding your way around, finding people and places, or finding information related to specific locations.
Online employment support
refers to web-delivered information and services that support researching employment options and finding employment.
Online Music
music refers to music delivered through Internet-based or web-based services and includes Internet radio, music subscription services, and music download services.
Online TV and video
refers to television programming, motion pictures, movies, and user-generated video available on the web.
Online Games
include the many different types of single-user, multiuser, and massively multiuser games played on the Internet and the web.
Social Media
refers to online services that support social interaction and publishing.