CIS111 Final Review

________ is the maximum speed at which data can be transferred between two nodes.
bandwidth
A network that spans a large physical distance is called a ________.
WAN
Normal telephone cable is a type of ________.
twisted-pair cable
For the nodes on a network to communicate with each other and access the network, each node needs a ________.
network adapter
On a network, a(n) ________ helps prevent data packets from colliding with each other.
switch
Sophisticated networks generally use which of the following hardware devices to ease the flow of data through the network?
routers and switches
To transfer data packets between two or more networks, a ________ is used.
router
Data are sent through a network in bundles called ________.
packets
Using a network without the network owner’s permission is known as ________.
piggybacking
The unique number assigned to a network adapter by the manufacturer is referred to as the ________ address.
MAC
The operating system of a cell phone is stored in ________.
ROM
A(n) ________ chip converts sound waves from a voice into digital signal.
analog-to-digital converter
A(n) ________ is included in a cell phone to handle the compression of data for it to be quickly transmitted to another phone.
digital signal processor chip
A ________ is a geographical area with a base transceiver station at its center.
cell
Which is true of SMS messages?
They can only contain a limited number of characters.
You can send messages that include photos and videos between mobile devices using ________ technology.
multimedia message service (MMS)
The distance between two near field communication (NFC) devices is limited to about ________.
1.5 inches
________ allows only limited use of media that have been legally purchased.
digital rights management
Which of the following describes the number of times an analog wave is measured each second during an analog-to-digital conversion?
sampling rate
Which of the following digital image formats compresses the image file?
JPEG
The Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) is a partnership between the ________.
FBI and National White Collar Crime Center
________ viruses are often transmitted by a flash drive left in a USB port.
Boot-sector
A(n) ________ takes advantage of file transport methods to spread on its own.
worm
A ________ is a virus that is attached to documents such as Word or Excel files.
macro virus
Which of the following classifications of viruses can change its own code to avoid detection?
polymorphic
A(n) ________ is the portion of virus code that is unique to a particular computer virus.
virus signature
________ hackers break into systems for non-malicious reasons such as to test system security vulnerabilities.
white-hat
A ________ allows a hacker to gain access to your computer and take almost complete control of it without your knowledge.
rootkit
Configuring a firewall to ignore all incoming packets that request access to a specific port is known as ________.
logical port blocking
CAPTCHA is ________.
the wavy hard-to-read letter and number sequence that you type to prove that you are human to a website
Adware and spyware are referred to collectively as ________.
grayware
Social ________ is any technique that uses social skills to generate human interaction that entices individuals to reveal sensitive information.
engineering
When malicious code is planted on your computer and alters your browser’s ability to find web addresses, it is known as ________.
pharming
What is the first step of the system development life cycle (SDLC)?
problem and opportunity indentification
The set of specific, sequential steps that describe exactly what a computer program must do to complete the work is called a(n) ________.
algorithm
The keywords used in programming languages that use decisions to redirect the flow of a program are called ________.
control structures
A loop decision point consists of three features: an initial value, a set of actions to be performed, and a(n) ________.
test condition
________ breaks down a problem into a series of high-level tasks and continues to break each task into successively more detailed subtasks.
top-down design
Object-oriented ________ are defined by the information (data) and the actions (methods) associated with them.
classes
An example of a first-generation language is ________.
machine language
The capability of moving a completed programming solution easily from one type of computer to another is known as ________.
portability
The process that converts program code into machine language is called ________.
compilation
________ is the set of instructions that programmers have written in a higher-level language.
source code
Division by zero is a ________ error that is caught when the program executes.
runtime
A small Java-based program is called a ________.
java applet
Special symbols called tags are used in which of the following languages?
HTML/XHTML
If a school keeps two lists, one for student registration and one for student financial information, both containing name and address information, this is an example of data ________.
redundancy
In a database, the term ________ is synonymous with a category of information.
field, row, table, record***
In a database, a group of related records is referred to as a(n) ________.
table
In a Microsoft Access database, something like the Gettysburg Address would be stored in a(n) ________ field.
long text
You can set a ________, which is automatically displayed in a field unless the user enters something different.
default value
________ is used to ensure that data is organized most efficiently.
normalization, range checking, consistency checking, validation
________ databases are the most commonly used electronic databases.
relational
________ means that for each value in the foreign key of one table, there is a corresponding value in the primary key of another table.
referential integrity
A(n) ________ check determines whether a required field such as LastName was filled in.
completeness
A ________ displays a subset of data from a table (or tables) based on the specified criteria.
select query
________ involves taking data from your database and putting it into an electronic file in a format that another external application or database can recognize.
exporting
Big data analytics is usually associated with ________ services.
data warehouse
In a transaction-processing system (TPS), if the TPS database can be queried and updated while the transaction is taking place, this is called ________ processing.
real-time
In a ________ network, each node connected to the network communicates directly with every other node.
peer-to-peer
A ________ uses the Internet communications infrastructure to build a secure and private network.
VPN
A(n) ________ server is a server that stores and manages files for network users.
file
A print server uses a print ________ as a software holding area for jobs waiting to be printed.
spooler
Which of the following is the most commonly used client/server network topology?
star
In an Ethernet network, the signal that is sent to indicate a signal collision is called a ________ signal.
jam
________ is the amount of data that can be transmitted across a transmission medium in a certain amount of time.
bandwidth
________ is the standard communications protocol used on most client/server networks.
ethernet
The physical address assigned each network adapter is called its ________.
media access control (MAC)
A(n) ________ address is the address that external entities use when communicating with your network.
IP
A ________ sends data from one collision domain to another.
bridge
A ________ sends data between two networks.
router
Configuring an account to disable itself after a set number of login attempts using invalid passwords is a method of countering a ________.
brute force attack
The main path of the Internet along which data travels the fastest is known as the Internet ________.
backbone
High-speed ________ communication lines use fiber-optics.
OC
The main suite of protocols used on the Internet is ________.
TCP/IP
< b > is an example of an HTML ________.
tag
________ defines the content in terms of the data that is being described rather than how it is to be displayed.
XML
________ enables interactive functionality beyond the simple display of information on a web page by providing a platform which can execute a program to do things like collect data from the user.
CGI
A(n) ________ is a small program that resides on a server and is designed to be downloaded and run on a client computer.
applet
The ________ defines items on a web page such as graphics, tables, and headers as objects.
DOM
Which protocol is used when sending files as attachments by e-mail?
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
In public-key encryption, the two keys—one for coding and one for decoding—are known as ________.
a key pair
Which of the following is an example of an instant messaging service?
yahoo messenger
________ permits two or more people to communicate over the Internet in real time.
instant messaging
Strong encryption now requires ________-bit keys.
256