CIS120

Google Docs is classified as ____ software where users can share and edit a document in real time on the Web.
Collaborative
When you use the Remote Business Desktop (RBUS) from home, your computer becomes a ______ of the FCB network.
Client
System software installed on a phone is called _________ software.
Embedded
A ____ software package usually includes document production, numerical analysis, information management, and graphics.
Productivity
The purpose of the ____ is to store the boot process instructions for the computer to start up.
BIOS
An icon on your desktop represents a ____ interface.
Graphical
Which of the following uses the New Technology File System (NTFS) for organizing and managing files?
Windows 8
Many programming languages require a ____ to create executable files.
Compiler
Clicking on a(n) ____ file will start up a program.
Executable
Embedded operating systems are hardwired into a computer component, such as ROM or flash memory, to control a ____ computer.
Special-purpose
This type of system captures the knowledge of a human expert in a specific area
Expert
All of the following are AI methodologies that rely on a human to give instructions for problem solving EXCEPT ____.
Neural networks
Natural language processing consists of:
Translation and understanding of human speech
____ artificial intelligence is very popular in the programming of robots.
Behavior-based
Computational intelligence is directly related to ____.
Artificial intelligence
The use of incomplete data in processing is part of the domain known as:
Fuzzy logic
One important characteristic of artificial intelligence is when a device modifies its own behavior based on its ability to learn, also known as ____.
Machine learning
A popular video game system that has applied the AI application computer vision is ____.
Kinect
Speech recognition, handwriting recognition, and face recognition all fall under the AI category of ____ recognition.
Pattern
One use for a(n) ____ is to search for information pertaining to a specific query.
Intelligent agent
Inaccurate data entered into a database resulting in incorrect output is also known as _____.
Garbage in, garbage out (GIGO)
A field consists of:
Characters
A data dictionary includes all of the following EXCEPT _____.
The digital certificate
A ____ uniquely identifies a record.
Primary key
In a customer table in a database, the customer’s telephone number is part of the customer’s _______:
Record
A popular database software program called _____ uses a wizard tool to help build and generate SQL queries.
Access
A common type of database format known as _____ stores records as a line of text separated by commas.
CSV
This activity can find relationships and patterns in a large collection of data.
Data mining
The way users extract information from the data stored in a database is through:
Queries
In a database, your first name would be categorized as a _____.
Field
refers to the manner in which data is organized and stored.
database structure
consists of a group of programs that manipulate the data within a database. It provides an interface between the database and the user, or between the database and application programs.
Database Management System (DBMS)
-refers to the manner in which data in a database is organized into sequential levels of detail.
-The hierarchy that is defined for data within a database makes it possible for a database management system to manipulate the data to produce useful information.
Data Hierarchy
Stages of database hierarchy
1. database-project database
2. files-personal file
3. records-record containing SSN, last & first name
4. fields-last name
5. charcters-letter f is ASCII (of last name)
a field in a table used to identify a record, such as EmployeeNumber.
database key
A collection of fields about a specific entity
record
A field in a record that is used to identify the record.
key
A field within a database table that uniquely identifies the record.
primary key
-organizes data into multiple tables that are related by common fields.
-all data elements are placed in two-dimensional tables organized in rows and columns, simplifying data access and manipulation.
relational database
a collection of data organized to meet users’ needs
database
-occurs when data is copied, stored, and used from different locations, resulting in multiple copies of data.
-is difficult to manage because any required change must be applied to all copies of the data, but often a copy is overlooked and becomes inaccurate.
data redundancy
-stores database records in a plain text file
-his method of data storage typically stores each record as a line of text, and uses commas, tabs, or other indicators within the line to separate the fields within the record
flat file database
the most common type of flat file?
CSV for comma-separated values. The contents of a file named addressbook.csv might look something like this when viewed with a text editor:
-Databases for personal computers are most often designed for a single user. Only one person can use the database at any time.
-Microsoft Outlook and Quicken are examples
special-purpose databases
-Most small, medium, and large businesses require multiuser DBMSs that allow multiple employees to access and edit data simultaneously
-they allow you to create a database and a DBMS for accessing and manipulating data in the database.
database development platforms
-can be used for many different types of applications
-Oracle, Sybase, and IBM databases
general-purpose databases
typically a name, number, or combination of characters that in some way describes an aspect of an object (an individual, a song in a music library, an item in inventory, a photograph in an album) or activity (a business transaction, an interaction)
field
A collection of related fields that describe some object or activity
record
collection of related records
file or table
are permanent files that are updated over time
-ex: an iTunes music library that includes all the songs in your collection is a database table or file.
master files
-contain data representing transactions or actions that must be taken.
-Organizations also have temporary files that hold data that needs to be processed, such as the transactions of paying employees, or sales orders
transaction files
-a generalized class of people, places, or things (objects) for which data is collected, stored, and maintained
-are represented as records in a database
entities
-is a characteristic of an entity.
attribute
-The specific value of an attribute
-can be found in the fields of the record describing an entity
data item
involves choosing data based on certain criteria. For example, you might want to find all customers who live in Chicago, which might be expressed as City = “Chicago”.
selecting
-involves combining two or more tables
-For example, you could combine the inventory table from one company with the inventory table of another company when the two companies merge
joining
The ability to connect data in different tables through a common field
relationship
Relationships between tables can be illustrated through
entity relationship diagram
include software and techniques for analyzing, maintaining, and manipulating data in a database.
database tools
-a graphical representation of the structure of a database.
-allow database administrators and users to visualize the structure of a database and understand the relationships between data and tables.
schema
-provides a detailed description of each field and table in a databas
-provides specific details on the requirements of each field and table in a database, how they may be accessed, and the specific parameters and requirements imposed on the data they hold.
data dictionary
a popular data manipulation language used by the vast majority of database programmers and administrators for manipulating data to meet the needs of the users.
Structured Query Language
a process that involves evaluating data to identify problems with the content of a database
Data analysis
-The process of correcting data problems or anomalies
-involves breaking one table into two or more tables in order to correct a data problem or anomaly
normalization
the quality of data: the degree to which it is accurate and up to date.
Data integrity
The results are inaccurate output.
garbage in/garbage out (GIGO)
a collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and data relationships in a specific database
data definition language (DDL)
a specific language provided with the DBMS that allows people and other database users to access, modify, and make queries about data contained in the database and to generate reports
data manipulation language (DML)
where a database entity is selected as an example of the criteria to be queried
query by example (QBE)
are large databases that function as the cornerstone of information systems in businesses and enterprises.
Industrial Databases
a very large database that holds important information from a variety of sources.
Data Warehouse
-refers to the process of extracting information from a data warehouse or data mart.
-The amount of data collected by today’s corporations is far too huge to be interpreted solely by humans. Computerized tools are needed to discover irregularities and trends in data.
Data Mining
-takes available data stored in multiple locations and makes it appear as a single collection.
-enable users from various locations to benefit from a universal view of corporate data.
Distributed Database
a climate-controlled building or set of buildings that house servers that store and deliver mission-critical information and services.
data center
a skilled and trained computer professional who directs all activities related to an organization’s database, including providing security from intruders.
Database Administrator
a small data warehouse, often developed for a specific person or purpose.
data mart
a term first coined by a consultant at Gartner Group, the business use of data mining can help increase efficiency, reduce costs, or increase profits.
BI- business intelligence
a database that holds a duplicate set of frequently used data. At the beginning of the day, an organization sends a copy of important data to each distributed processing location
replicated database
refers to the electronic instructions that govern a computer’s actions to provide a computing service.
software
is the systematic process of transforming a software idea into functional software.
Software Development
he process of creating software through the use of logic, algorithms, and programming languages.
Computer Programming
provide a set of symbols, commands, and rules (syntax) used to write program code.
Programming Languages
a set of programming tools specifically designed for developing apps for a particular platform.
Application Programming (API)
a five-stage process that begins with requirements analysis, proceeds to the design stage, and is followed by implementation, verification (testing), and maintenance.
oftware development life cycle (SDLC)
integrates all of the above tools and provides other helpful features.
integrated development environment (IDE)
the rules that guide how programming statements are constructed. By combining these common programming tools in unique ways and taking advantage of special traits of specific programming languages, developers create useful new apps.
syntax
has become the dominant programming paradigm.
Object-oriented programming (OOP)
a programming environment designed to write software for a particular computing platform.
software development kit (SDK)
any software that coordinates the activities of the hardware and assists the computer in functioning safely, effectively and efficiently.
System Software
also known as booting, booting up, or bootstrapping, is the sequence of instructions in the BIOS that is executed when a computer is powered on to check the system and load the operating system into memory.
Boot Process
-a set of computer programs that runs or controls the computer hardware, and acts as a user interface
-run on most digital devices and perform certain similar tasks, such as controlling computer hardware, managing RAM, managing the processor(s), controlling input and output devices, storing and managing files, providing a user interface, and providing networking functionality.
Operating System
allows one or more people to have access to and command of a computer system or computer software.
User Interface
refers to the physical and logical storage system and practices provided for managing data on a computer.
File Management
a free, open-source operating system for PCs, servers, and other types of computers.
Linux
also referred to as virtualization software, allows one operating system to run on top of another by creating a virtual machine on which the guest operating system can run.
Virtual Machine Software
are lightweight operating systems designed for mobile devices such as smart phones and tablets.
Mobile Operating Systems
control large networked systems and servers.
Industrial Operating Systems
are hardwired into a computer component, such as ROM or flash memory, to control a special-purpose computer.
Embedded Operating Systems
any system software besides the OS that assists in maintaining, managing, and protecting computer system resources.
Utility Software
consists of programs written to perform tasks or solve problems for people, groups, and organizations.
Application Software
any software designed to assist individuals and groups to be more productive at work and is often used in reference to software suites that include word processing, spreadsheet, database, and presentation software.
Business Software
any software designed for personal benefit, including home management, entertainment and educational software.
any software designed for personal benefit, including home management, entertainment and educational software.
refers to the several methods by which software can be purchased or accessed, including packaged software, downloaded software, cloud apps, and custom designed software.
Acquiring Software
defines the permissions, rights, and restrictions assigned to the person who purchases a copy of software.
Software Licensing
consist of the various approaches to AI research that generally fall under one of two categories: conventional AI or computational intelligence.
AI Methodologies
-uses programming that emphasizes statistical analysis to calculate the probability of various outcomes in order to find the best solution.
-techniques are embedded in many of today’s popular software applications making them easier to use, and more useful.
Conventional AI
-a form of conventional AI that is programmed to function like a human expert in a particular field or area.
-Many professional activities are tedious, redundant, and sometimes dangerous. Expert systems can assist human professionals.
Expert System (ES)
an offshoot of AI that employs methodologies such as neural networks, fuzzy systems, and evolutionary computation to set up a system whereby the software can develop intelligence through an iterative learning process.
Computational Intelligence
uses software to simulate the functioning of the neurons in a human brain.
Neural Network
was devised by Alan Turing as a method of determining if a machine exhibits human intelligence.
Turing Test
ways in which AI methodologies are applied to solve problems and provide services.
AI Applications
involves developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision or are tedious or hazardous for humans.
Robotics
combines hardware (cameras and scanners) and AI software that permit computers to capture, store, and interpret visual images and pictures.
Computer Vision
uses AI techniques to enable computers to generate and understand natural human languages, such as English.
Natural Language Processing
is an area of AI that develops systems that are trained to recognize patterns in data.
Pattern Recognition
digital assistant, or bot, consists of programs and a knowledge base used to perform a specific task for a person, a process, or another program.
Intelligent Agent
a branch of AI that works to program computers to express themselves through art, music, poetry, and other outlets.
Artificial Creativity
is derived from fuzzy set theory, which deals with reasoning that is approximate rather than precise. A simple example of fuzzy logic might be one in which cumulative probabilities do not add up to 100%, a state that occurs frequently in medical diagnosis.
Fuzzy logic
based on fuzzy logic and typically used to control machines. For example, the microcontroller that controls the anti-lock brakes in your car uses fuzzy logic to apply just enough brake to stop quickly while avoiding a skid based on varying road conditions.
fuzzy control system
includes areas of AI that derive intelligence by attempting many solutions and throwing away the ones that don’t work—a “survival of the fittest” approach.
Evolutionary computation
form of evolutionary computation that is used to solve large, complex problems where a number of algorithms or models change and evolve until the best one emerges.
genetic algorithm
or rules of thumb, to arrive at conclusions or make suggestions
heuristics