CIW lesson 3

Network
A group of two or more computers connected so they can communicate with one another.
Node
Any entity on a network that can be managed such as a system, repeater, router, gateway, switch or firewall. A computer or other addressable device attached to a network; a host.
Client
An individual computer connected to a network. Also, a system or application ( such as a Web browser or user agent) that requests a service from another computer (the server) and is used to access files or documents.
Server
A computer in a network that manages the network resources and provides, or serves, information to clients
Local Area Network (LAN)
A group of computers connected within a confined geographic area.
Wide Area Network (WAN)
A group of computers connected over an expansive geographic area so their users can share files and services.
Internet
A worldwide network of interconnected networks.
Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA)
A U.S Department of Defense agency that created the global computer network.
Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET)
A computer network, funded by ARPA, that served as the basis for early networking research and was the backbone during the development of the Internet.
National Science Foundation
An independent agency of the U.S. government that promotes the advancement of science and engineering.
Backbones
The highest level in the computer network hierarchy, to which smaller networks typically connect.
Gateways
A node on a network that serves as a portal to other networks.
World Wide Web
A set of software programs that enables users to access resources on the internet via hypertext documents
Hypertext Links
Highlighted or underlined text that, when clicked, links the user to another location or Web page
Web Page
An HTML document containing one or more elements (text, images, hyperlinks) that can be linked to or from other HTML pages
Web Site
A world wide web server and its content; includes multiple Web pages.
Web Browsers
A software application that enables users to access and view Web site’s development.
Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol(TCP/IP)
A suite of protocols that turns data into blocks of information called packets, which are then sent across the Internet. The standard protocol used by the internet.
Packets
Data processed by protocols so it can be sent across a network.
Router
A device that routes packets between networks based on network-layer addresses; determines the best path across a network. Also used to connect separate LANs to form a WAN.
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
An organization that maintains a gateway to the internet and rents access to customers on a per-use or subscription
Modem
Abbreviation for modulator/ demodulator. An analog devices that enables computers to communicate over telephone lines by translating digital data into audio/ analog signals (on the sending computer) and then back into digital form (on the receiving computer).
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
A communication standard for sending voice, video or data over digital telephone lines.
Bandwith
The amount of information, sometimes called traffic, that can be carried on a network at one time. The total capacity of a line. Also, the rate of data transfer over a network connection; measured in bits per second.
Network interface card (NIC)
A circuit board within a computer’s central processing unit that serves as the interface enabling the computer to connect to a network.
Wireless access point (AP)
A device that enables wireless systems to communicate with each other, provided that they are on the same network.
Standard
A definition or format that has been approved by a recognized standards organization.
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A high-speed direct Internet connection that uses all-digital networks.
xDSL
Collectively, the variation of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), which include ADSL, RADSL and HDSL.
4th generation (4G)
Wireless phone network capable of delivering high-speed broadband Internet access to mobile devices.
4G hotspot
A device that connects a wireless local area network to a wireless phone network at broadband speeds.
Internet Protocol
The data transmission standard for the Internet. Every computer connected to the Internet has its own IP address, which enables a packet of data to be delivered to a specific computer.
Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
The international organization responsible for allocation of IP addresses. Part of the internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN).
Hexadecimal
A base-16 number system that allows large numbers to be displayed fewer characters than if the number were displayed in the regular base-10 system. In hexadecimal, the number 10 is represented as the letter A, 15 is represented as F and 16 is represented as 10.
Point to Point Protocol
A protocol that allows a computer to connect to the Internet over a phone line.
Point to Point Protocol over Ethernet
A protocol that implements PPP on top of the Ethernet architecture to connect an entire network to the Internet.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The protocol for transporting HTML documents across the Internet.
File Transport Protocol
An internet protocol used to transfer files between computers; allows file transfer without corruption or alteration.
Electronic mail protocols
The software that governs interactions between servers and clients
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
The Internet standard protocol for transferring e-mail messages from one computer to another.
Post Office Protocol (POP)
A protocol that resides on an incoming mail server. The current version is POP3.
Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
A protocol that resides on an incoming mail server. Similar to POP, but is more powerful. Allows sharing of mailboxes and multiple mail server access. The current version is IMAP4.
Usenet (User Network)
A collection of thousands of Internet computers, newsgroups and newsgroup members using Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP) to exchange information.
Newsgroup
On Usenet, a subject or other topical interest group whose member exchange ideas and opinions. Participants post and receive messages via a news server.
Network News Transfer Protocol (NNTP)
The internet protocol used by news servers that enables the exchange of newsgroup (Usenet) articles.
Domain Name System (DNS)
A system that maps uniquely hierarchical names to specific Internet addresses.
Domain Name
An IP address represented in words.
Host
A computer that other computers can use to gain information. In network architecture, a host is a client or workstation.
Fully qualified domain name (FQDN)
The complete domain name of an internet computer, such as www.CIWcertified.com
Root-level server
A server at the highest level of the Domain Name System.
Domain Name Server
A server that resolves domain names into IP addresses.
Virtual Domain
A hosting service that allows a company to host its domain name on a third-party ISP server.
Shared Domain
A hosting service that allows multiple entities to share portions of the same domain name.
Grid Computing
The collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal.
Software as a Service
A delivery model where software and associated data are centrally hosted on the cloud.