CNIT 180 Final Exam

Examples of company-wide applications, called ____, include order processing systems, payroll systems, and company communications networks.
enterprise applications
Over 40 years ago, a concept called Moore’s Law accurately predicted that computer processing power would double about every ____.
24 months
Knowledge management systems are called expert systems because they ____.
simulate human reasoning by combining a knowledge base and inference rules that determine how the knowledge is applied
A ____, or requirements model, describes the information that a system must provide.
business model
A(n) ____ describes the logic that programmers use to write code modules
process model
____ methods include the latest trends in software development.
Agile/Adaptive
The ____ method of developing systems produces code that is modular and reusable.
object-oriented analysis
Structured analysis is a traditional systems development technique that uses a series of phases, called the ____, to plan, analyze, design, implement, and support an information system.
SDLC
Whereas structured analysis treats processes and data as separate components, ____ combines data and the processes that act on the data into things called objects.
O-O
Agile methods typically use a(n) ____model, which represents a series of iterations based on user feedback.
spiral
When building an information system, all of the following basic guidelines should be considered EXCEPT ____.
ensure that users are not involved in the development process
A systems analyst needs ____.
A. solid technical knowledge and good analytical ability
B. strong oral and written communication skills
C. an understanding of business operations and processes
Systems development typically starts with a ____.
systems request, followed by a preliminary investigation, which includes a feasibility study
____ planning is the process of identifying long-term organizational goals, strategies, and resources.
Strategic
A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that a proposed system will be used effectively after it has been developed.
operational
A feasibility study includes tests for ____ feasibility, which means that the projected benefits of the proposed system outweigh the estimated costs.
economic
Examples of intangible benefits include all of the following EXCEPT a(n) ____.
online package tracking system that decreases the need for clerical staff
When setting priorities for systems requests, the highest priority goes to projects that provide the ____.
greatest benefit, at the lowest cost, in the shortest period of time
____ is an example of a discretionary project.
Creating a new report for a user
A popular technique for investigating causes and effects is called a(n) ____ diagram, which is an analysis tool that represents the possible causes of a problem as a graphical outline.
fishbone
Determining the project ____ means to define the boundaries, or extent, of a project — being as specific as possible.
scope
In sequence, the interviewing process involves a series of steps: ____, conduct the interview, document the interview, and evaluate the interview.
determine the people to interview, establish objectives for the interview, develop interview questions, prepare for the interview
A survey is ____, generally takes less time, and can involve a broad cross-section of people.
not as flexible as a series of interviews, but it is less expensive
A systems analyst should provide ____ so managers can understand the full cost impact and timetable.
A. time figures for the next development phase
B. cost figures for the next development phase
C. an estimate for the overall project
The ____ phase of the SDLC includes four main activities: requirements modeling, data and process modeling, object modeling, and consideration of development strategies.
systems analysis
____ enable a systems analyst to identify a problem, evaluate the key elements, and develop a useful solution.
Analytical skills
____ are especially important to a systems analyst who must work with people at all organizational levels, balance conflicting needs of users, and communicate effectively.
Interpersonal skills
The primary advantage of RAD is that ____.
systems can be developed more quickly with significant cost savings
The ____ is a widely used method of visualizing and documenting software systems design.
UML
All of the following are categories of system requirements EXCEPT ____.
dynamics
____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the process category.
The video rental system must not execute new rental transactions for customers who have overdue tapes
____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the performance category.
The student records system must produce class lists within five hours after the end of registration
____ is a typical example of a system requirement for the control category.
The system must maintain separate levels of security for users and the system administrator
In an interview, ____ are questions that ask a person to evaluate something by providing limited answers to specific responses or on a numeric scale.
range-of-response questions
When studying an information system, examples of actual documents should be collected using a process called ____.
sampling
When preparing a representative sample from a list of 200 customers who complained about errors in their statements, a ____ might select every tenth customer for review.
systematic sample
Wireless capability allows all of the following EXCEPT ____.
random sampling
Every information system involves ____.
A. data storage and access methods
B. application programs to handle the programming logic
C. an interface that allows users to interact with the system
In a(n) ____ design, the remote user’s keystrokes are transmitted to the mainframe, which responds by sending screen output back to the user’s screen.
centralized
In a client/server architecture, just as processing can be done at various places, data can be stored in more than one location using a(n) ____.
DDBMS
During business hours, a salesperson can enter a sale on a ____ terminal, which is part of an information system that handles daily sales transactions and maintains the online inventory file.
POS
A batch processing system has all of the following characteristics EXCEPT ____.
the information system is available whenever necessary to support business operations
In the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, the application layer ____.
provides network services requested by a local workstation
In the OSI (Open System Interconnection) model, the presentation layer ____.
assures that data is uniformly structured and formatted for network transmission
In all cases, a network must use a ____, which is a set of standards that govern network data transmission.
protocol
A popular network protocol is ____, which today is the backbone of the Internet.
TCP/IP
In a ____, one or more powerful servers controls the network, and departmental servers control lower levels of processing and network devices.
hierarchical network
A ____ resembles a circle of computers that communicate with each other.
ring network
A form of wireless transmission called ____ is very popular for short-distance wireless communication that does NOT require high power.
Bluetooth
____ means that the projected benefits of a proposed system outweigh the estimated costs.
Economic feasibility
The cost of customer dissatisfaction, lower employee morale, and reduced information availability are examples of _____.
intangible costs
With a no charge method, indirect IT department costs are _____.
treated as general organizational costs and not charged to other departments
With a fixed charge method, indirect IT department costs are _____.
divided among all departments in the form of a set monthly charge
With a variable charge method based on resource usage, indirect IT department costs are _____.
varied from month to month, depending on a department’s use of resources
With a variable charge method based on volume, indirect IT department costs are _____.
allocated to other departments based on user-oriented activity
Cost-benefit analysis is performed _____ to determine the economic feasibility of an information system project and to compare alternative solutions.
throughout the SDLC
ROI is calculated with the formula _____.
ROI = (total benefits – total costs) / total costs
The _____ of a future dollar is the amount of money that, when invested today at a specified interest rate, grows to exactly one dollar at a certain point in the future.
present value
If a spreadsheet program includes a built-in present value function, the program inputs the formula and users input the _____.
amount, discount rate, and number of time periods
An object has certain ____, like the make, model, and color of a car.
attributes
An object’s ____ are the tasks or functions the object performs.
methods
____ are characteristics that describe the object.
Attributes
A(n) ____ is a group of similar objects.
class
In an object-oriented system, objects can ____ certain attributes from other objects.
inherit
A(n) ____ defines specific tasks that an object can perform.
method
All objects within a(n) ____ share common attributes and methods.
class
____ enable objects to communicate and interact as they perform business functions and transactions required by the system.
Relationships
____ describe what objects need to know about each other, how objects respond to changes in other objects, and the effects of membership in classes, superclasses, and subclasses.
Relationships
Inheritance enables a ____ to derive one or more of its attributes from a parent.
child
A use case ____ is a visual summary of several related use cases within a system or subsystem.
diagram
When you construct a ____, you review the use case and identify the classes that participate in the underlying business transaction.
class diagram
Sequence diagrams include symbols that represent all of the following EXCEPT ____.
indices
In data and process modeling, a(n) ____ model shows what the system must do, regardless of how it will be implemented physically.
logical
A black hole process is a process that has ____.
no output
____ is/are logically impossible in a DFD because a process must act on input, shown by an incoming data flow, and produce output, represented by an outgoing data flow.
A. Spontaneous generation
B. Gray holes
C. Black holes
____ maintains consistency among DFDs by ensuring that input and output data flows align properly.
Balancing
In a data dictionary, a(n) ____ is the smallest piece of data that has meaning within an information system.
field
In a data dictionary, ____ refers to whether the data element contains numeric, alphabetic, or character values.
B. type
In a data dictionary, ____ is the maximum number of characters for an alphabetic or character data element or the maximum number of digits and number of decimal positions for a numeric data element.
length
A data dictionary specifies a data element’s ____, which is the set of values permitted for the data element.
domain
In a data dictionary, some data elements have ____ rules, such as an employee’s salary must be within the range defined for the employee’s job classification.
validity
____ also is called looping.
Iteration
A decision ____ is a graphical representation of the conditions, actions, and rules found in a decision table.
tree
A data ____, which is a framework for organizing and storing data, consists of one or more files or tables.
structure
One problem in a file processing environment is ____, which means that data common to two or more information systems is stored in several places.
data redundancy
A(n) ____ is a collection of tools, features, and interfaces that enables users to add, update, manage, access, and analyze the contents of a database.
DBMS
With a(n) ____ language, the user provides an example of the data requested.
QBE
Many database programs generate ____, which is a language that allows PC client workstations to communicate with servers and mainframe computers.
SQL
During the systems design phase, ____ fields are used to organize, access, and maintain data structures.
key
One type of validity check, called ____ integrity, is a set of rules that avoids data inconsistency and quality problems.
referential
A(n) ____ is a graphical model of an information system that depicts the relationships among system entities.
ERD
One common method of indicating ____ is called crow’s foot notation because of the shapes, which include circles, bars, and symbols that indicate various possibilities.
cardinality
____ codes use a keyword to encode a number.
Cipher
____ is the process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access to the data.
Encryption
Although the traditional model of software acquisition still accounts for more software acquisition, a new model, called ____, is changing the picture dramatically.
Software as a Service
Building an application in a ____ environment can offer greater benefits, and sometimes greater risks, compared to a traditional environment.
Web-based
Some industry leaders predict that ____ computing will offer an overall online software and data environment supported by supercomputer technology.
cloud
____ is the transfer of information systems development, operation, or maintenance to an outside firm that provides these services, for a fee, on a temporary or long-term basis.
Outsourcing
A firm that offers outsourcing solutions is called a ____ provider.
service
Typically, companies choose in-house software development for all of the following reasons EXCEPT to ____.
obtain input from other companies who already have implemented the software
Advantages of purchasing a software package over developing software in-house include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
satisfaction of unique business requirements
Buyers can customize a software package by ____.
A. negotiating directly with the software vendor to make enhancements to meet the buyer’s needs by paying for the changes
B. purchasing a basic package that vendors will customize to suit the buyer’s needs
C. purchasing the software and making their own modifications, if this is permissible under the terms of the software license
A ____ is a document that describes a company, lists the IT services or products needed, and specifies the features required.
request for proposal (RFP)
A ____ is a value that the user enters whenever a query is run, which provides flexibility, enables users to access information easily, and costs less.
parameter
Guidelines to follow when determining data entry and storage considerations include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
data duplication should be encouraged
Potential problems of prototyping include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
prototyping increases the risk and potential financial exposure that occur when a finished system fails to support business needs
A(n) ____ is a user interface that allows users to interact with graphical objects and pointing devices.
GUI
Initial screen designs can be presented to users in the form of a(n) ____, which is a sketch that shows the general screen layout and design.
storyboard
Printed output is used in ____ documents, which are output documents that are later entered back into the same or another information system.
turnaround
A(n) ____ produces one or more lines of output for each record processed.
detail report
A(n) ____ displays only those records that meet a specific condition or conditions.
exception report
For upper-level managers who often want to see total figures and do not need supporting details, a(n) ____ is appropriate.
summary report
A ____ report is a type of detail report in which a control break causes specific actions, such as printing subtotals for a group of records.
control break
An existence check is a data validation check that ____.
is used for mandatory data items
A range check is a data validation check that ____.
tests data items to verify that they fall between a specified minimum and maximum value
A reasonableness check is a data validation check that ____.
identifies values that are questionable, but not necessarily wrong
A combination check is a data validation check that ____.
is performed on two or more fields to ensure that they are consistent or reasonable when considered together
Because every piece of information should be traceable back to the input data that produced it, a(n) ____ trail must be provided that records the source of each data item and when it entered the system.
audit
Traditional code was written in _____ languages such as COBOL, which required a programmer to create code statements for each processing step.
procedural
Selecting a CASE tool depends on the _____.
A. type of project and its size and scope
B. possible budgetary and time constraints
C. preferences and experience of the system development team
_____ means translating business processes and functions into applications.
Forward engineering
_____ allows an existing application to be examined and broken down into a series of diagrams, structure charts, and, in some cases, source code.
Reverse engineering
With a report generator, sample fields can be input to create a _____ for users to review and approve.
mock-up report
In a specific software environment, an integrated development tool is highly effective because _____.
it is built into the vendor’s software package
____ offers tools for data and application modeling, code generation, and software configuration management.
Visible Analyst
IBM offers many systems development and modeling products, including the powerful tool called _____.
Rational System Architect
_____can model networks, business processes, and many types of special diagrams.
Microsoft Visio
A(n) _____typically includes built-in tools such as real-time error detection, syntax hints, highlighted code, class browsers, and version control.
IDE
Software ____ is a software development process that stresses solid design, effective structure, accurate documentation, and careful testing.
engineering
Application ____ is the process of constructing the programs and code modules that serves as the building blocks of an information system.
development
A ____ consists of related program code organized into small units that are easy to understand and maintain.
module
In a(n) ____ approach, the systems analyst defines the overall objectives of a system and then breaks them down into subsystems and modules.
top-down
A module that performs a single function or task has a high degree of ____, which is desirable.
cohesion
____ describes the degree of interdependence among modules.
Coupling
In addition to analyzing logic and program code, a project team usually holds a session with users, called a ____ walkthrough, to review the interface with a cross-section of people who will work with the new system and ensure that all the necessary features have been included.
design
In a technique called ____ testing, the programmer simulates each program outcome or result and displays a message to indicate whether or not the program executed successfully.
stub
During ____ testing, programmers must test programs that interact with other programs and files individually, before they are integrated into the system.
unit
Program documentation ____.
describes the inputs, outputs, and processing logic for all program modules
____ cutover involves more risk than other changeover methods.
Direct
All of the following are metrics of a successful project EXCEPT ____.
completion with the same personnel as were on the team at the outset
A project manager’s planning _____.
includes identifying project tasks and estimating completion times and costs
For a project manager, monitoring _____.
includes monitoring the progress of the project, evaluating results, and taking corrective action when necessary to stay on target
A(n) ____ chart displays complex task patterns and relationships
PERT/CPM
A ____ might involve maximums for one or more resources.
constraint
When several tasks can start at the same time, each is called a(n) ____ task.
concurrent
Project managers always must be aware of the ____ path, so they can monitor the vital tasks and keep the project on track.
critical
A _____ cannot be started until one or more other tasks are completed.
dependent task
A ____ is an event that could affect a project negatively.
risk
When an information system does not meet business requirements, causes might include ____.
A. unidentified requirements
B. inadequately defined scope
C. imprecise targets
When a project manager first recognizes that a project is in trouble, the options available to her include ____.
A. trimming the project requirements
B. delaying the project deadline
C. adding to the project resources