comm media final

high fidelity
a combination of technologies that allowed recordings to reproduce music more accurately, with higher notes and deeper bass, than was possible with previous recording technologies.
phonograph
an early sound-recording machine invented by Thomas Edison; the recorded material was played back on a cylinder
gramophone
a machine invented by Emilie Berliner that could play prerecorded sound on flat discs rather than cylinders
non-notated music
music such as a folk song or jazz solo that does not exist in written form
telegraph
the first system for using wires to send messages at a distance; invented by Samuel Morse in 1844
wireless telegraph
Guglielmo Macaroni’s name for his point to point communication tool that used radio waves to transmit messages
radio music box memo
David Sarnoff’s 1915 plan that outlined how radio could be used as a popular mass medium
network
a company that provides common programming to a large group of broadcast stations
golden age of radio
a period from that late 1920 until the 1940s during which radio was the dominant medium for home entertainment
soap operas
serialized daytime dramas targeted primarily at women.
social music
music that people play and sing for one another in the home or other social settings. in the absence of radio, recordings, and later TV, this was the means of hearing music most readily available to the largest number of people
rock n roll
a style of music popularized on radio that combined elements of white hillbilly music and black rhythm and blues.
race records
a term used by the recording industry prior to 1949 to refer to recordings by popular black artists. it was later replaced by more racially neutral terms such as R&B, soul, or urban contemporary
covers
songs recorded by someone other than the original artist.
girl groups
a musical group composed of several women singers who harmonize together. example – the Shitelles, the Ronettes and the Shangri-Las (popular in the 50s)
British Invasion
the ____ take on classic american rock n roll, blues, and R&B transformed rock n roll and became internationally popular in the 1960s with groups such as the Beatles and later the Rolling Stones and the Who
concept album
an album by a solo artist or group that contains related songs on a common theme or even a story, rather than a collection of unrelated hits or covers
producer
the person who puts together the right mix of songs, songwriters, technicians and performers to create an album; some observers argue that this person is the key catalyst for a hit album
disco
the name of the heavily produced techno club dance music of the 70s, which grew out of the urban gay male subculture with significant black and Latino influences. in many ways, this type of music defined the look and feel of the 1970s pop culture, fashion and film
hip-hop
a cultural movement that originated in the 70s and 80s that features four main elements: MCing (rapping over music), DJing – playing recorded music from many sources, B–boying – a style of dancing, and graffiti art
rap music
this genre arose out of the hip-hop culture in NYC in the 70s and 80s. it emerged from clubs where DJs played and remixed different records and sounds and then spoke over the top
country music
originally referred to as hillbilly or “old-timey” music, this genre evolved out of Irish and Scottish folk music, Mississippi blues and Christian gospel music and grew in the 50s and 60s with the so called Nashville sound
long-playing record (LP)
a record format introduced by Colombia records in 1948. the more durable ___ could reproduce 23 minutes of high quality music on each of the 2 sides and was a technological improvement over the 78-rpm
45-rpm disc
this record format was developed in the late 40s by RCA. it had a high-quality sound, but held only about 4 minutes of music per side. it was the ideal format for marketing popular hit songs to teens.
compact disc (CD)
a digital recording medium that came into common use in the early 80s. they can hold approximately 70 minutes of digitally recorded music.
digital recording
a method of recording sound that involves storing music in a computer readable format known as binary information (series of numbers)
analog recording
an electromechanical method of recording in which a sounds is translated into —-electrical signals that are then applied to a recording medium
MP3
short for moving picture experts group audio layer 3, its a standard for compressing music from CDs or other digital recordings into computer filed that can be easily exchanged on the internet
format radio
a style of radio programming designed to appeal to a narrow, specific audience. popular formats include country, contemporary hits, all talk, all sports and oldies
shock jocks
radio personalities, such as Howard stern, who attract listeners by making outrageous and offensive comments on the air
Federal Communications Commission
the federal agency charged with regulating telecommunications, including radio and TV broadcasting
terrestrial radio
AM and FM broadcast radio stations
HD radio
this type of radio technology provides listeners with CD quality sound and the choice of multiple channels of programming, but it is not yet commonly available in mass market outlets nor as standard equipment in cars.
satellite radio
***the radio service provided by digital signal broadcast from a communications satellite. supported by subscribers***, this service covers a wider area than terrestrial radio and offers programming that is different from corporate-owned terrestrial stations. however, it is costly and doesn’t provide local coverage such as traffic and weather reports.
streaming audio
audio programming transmitted over the internet
podcast
an audio program produced as an MP3 compressed music file that can be listened to online at the listeners convenience or downloaded to a computer or an MP3 player. These sometimes contain video content as well.
B
Which of the following developments occurred during World War I?
A) David Sarnoff translated radio signals for codes.
B) The military took over radio broadcasting.
C) Amateurs helped decipher German radio signals.
D) KDKA broadcast the results of the 1916 elections.
A
What is Akio Morita famous for?
A) Inventing the Walkman
B) inventing the iPod
C) inventing the compact disc
D) Inventing the MP3 process
C
What is Barry Gordy Jr. best known for?
A) discovering Bob Dylan
B) starring in the first kinetoscope film
C) founding Motown Records
D) being the radio operator who received the initial distress call from the Titanic
D
Which of the following best describes the biggest influence of the Sony Walkman?
A) People stopped buying expensive stereo equipment.
B) People started buying music on tapes instead of LPs.
C) People started pirating recording onto their own mix tapes instead of paying to purchase music.
D) People could start creating their own personal soundtracks instead of listening to music programmed by other people.
C
Which of these statements about radio following the growth of television in the late 1940s and 1950s is true?
A) This is a trick question: Television didn’t become popular until 1962.
B) Most radio stations kept on playing the same kinds of programs that they did prior to television.
C) Radio reinvented itself to become a companion medium, serving narrow niche audiences with specialized formats.
D) A majority of radio stations went bankrupt as people stopped listening to the radio.
kinetoscope
an early peepshow like movie projection system developed by Thomas Edison that could be used only by an individual viewer
feature length film
a theatrical movie that runs more than 1 hour
studio system
a factory like way of producing films that involved having all of the talent, including the actors and directors, working directly for the movie studios. the studios also had almost total control of the distribution system.
block bookings
requiring a theater owner to take a whole series of movies in order to get a few desirable, headliner films. this system was eventually found to violate antitrust laws.
synchronized soundtrack
sound effects, music and voices that go with the moving images in a movie .
talkie
a movie with synchronized sound – these quickly replaced silenced films
House Un-American Activities Committee
a congressional committee chaired by Parnell Thomas that help hearings on the influence of communism on Hollywood in 1947. these activities mirrored a wider effort to root out suspected communists in all walks on american life
hollywood ten
a group of writers and directors who refused to testify before the house un-american activities committee about their political activities. they were among the first people in california to be blacklisted
blacklist
a group of people banned from working in the movie industry in the late 40s and 50s because they were suspected of being communists or communist sympathizers. some of them were able to work under assumed names but others never worked again in the industry.
multiplex
a group of movie theaters with anywhere from 3 to 20 screens that share a common box office and concession stand. largely a suburban phenomenon at first, they replaced the old urban Art Deco movie palaces.
blockbuster era
a period from the late 70s to the present day in which movie studios make relatively expensive movies that have a large predefined audience.
production code
the industry imposed rules that controlled the content of movies from the 30s until the current movie rating system came into use in the 1968
ancillary/secondary markets
movie revenue sources other than the domestic box office. these include foreign box office, video rights and TV rights as well as tie-ins and product placements
community antenna television
an early form of cable TV used to distribute broadcast channels in communities with poor television reception
big 3 networks
the original TV broadcast networks: NBC, CBS, and ABC
videocassette recorder
a home videotape machine that allows viewers to make permanent copies of TV shows and thus choose when they want to watch programs
direct broadcast satellite
a low-earth-orbit satellite that provides TV programming via a small pizza sized satellite antenna
high definition television
a standard for high quality digital broadcasting that features a high resolution picture, wide screen format and enhanced sound
standard digital television
a requirement for digital broadcasting that allowsix channels to fit in the broadcast frequency space occupied by a single analog signal
television network
a company that provides programs to local stations around the country; the local affiliate stations choose which programs to carry
Public Broadcasting System
a nonprofit broadcast network that provides a wide range of public service and educational programs. its funded by government appropriations, private industry underwriting and viewer support
Big four networks
the broadcast landscape we know today: the big 3 plus Fox network
PeopleMeter
an electronic box used by the ratings company Nielsen Media Research to record which TV shows people watch
sweeps
the four times during the year that Nielsen Media Research measures the sizes of individual TV station audiences
rating point
the percentage of the total potential TV audience actually watching a particular show.
share
the percentage of TV sets in use that are tuned to a particular show
telenovelas
spanish language soap operas popular in both Latin America and the US
public access channels
local cable TV channels that air public affairs programming and other locally produced shows
video on demand
TV channels that allow consumer to order movies, news or other programs at any time over fiber optic lines
cutting the cord
replacing traditional paid video services, such as cable or satellite TV with internet based streaming video services
internet
a diverse set of independent networks, interlinked to provide its users with the appearance of a single, uniform network, it is a mass medium like no other, incorporating elements of interpersonal, group and mass communications.
packet switching
a method for breaking up long messages into small pieces and transmitting them independently across a computer network. once they arrive at their destination, the receiving computer reassembles the message into its original form
ARPAnet (advanced researched projects agency)
the first nationwide computer network, which became the first major component of the internet
TCP (transmission control protocol)
this controls how data is sent out on the internet
IP (internet protocol)
this provides the address for each computer on the internet
electronic mail (e-mail)
a message sent from one computer user to another across a network
instant messaging (IM)
email systems that allow two or more users to chat with one another in real time, hold virtual meetings that span multiple cities or even countries and keep track of which of their “buddies” are currently logged on to the system
listservs
internet discussion groups made up of subscribers that use email to exchange messages between as few as a dozen people to as many as several thousand
hypertext
material in a format containing links that allow the reader to move easily from 1 section to another and from document to document. the most commonly used are Web pages
World Wide Web (WWW.)
a system developed by Tim Berners Lee that allows users to view and link documents located anywhere in the world using standard software
uniform resource locator (URL)
one of the three major components of the web; the address for where web pages are located
hypertext transfer protocol (http)
a method of sending text, graphics or anything else over the internet from a server to a web browser
hypertext markup language (HTML)
the programming language used to create and format web pages
Mosaic
the first easy to use graphical web browser, developed by a group of student programmers
narrowband service
a relatively slow internet connection using a modern and conventional copper phone lines. although it is acceptable for viewing text and graphics, it is generally considered too slow for video and audio service
broadband service
a high speed continuous connection to the internet using a cable modern from a cable TV provider or a digital subscriber line from a phone company. They are typically 10 or more times faster than dial up services that use a modern
social media
web sites that allow users to generate content, comment, tag and network with friends or other like minded people
aggregator site
an organizing web site that provides surfers with easy access to email, news, online store and many other sites
Weblog
a collection of links and commentary in hypertext form on the world wide web that can be created and posted on the internet with relatively little effort, they can be public diaries, collections of photos or commentaries on the news
citizen journalism
journalism created by people other than professional journalists, often distributed over the internet
hacker ethic
a set of values from the early days of interactive computing that holds that users should have absolute control over their computer systems and free access to all information contained on those computers.
cookies
tiny files that web sites create to identify visitors and potentially track their actions on the site and the web
D
people connect to the internet using which of the following:
A) cable TV lines
B) telephone lines
C) wireless services
D) all the above
B
The movie that revolutionized internet based promotion of films was which of the following:
A) my big fat greek wedding
B) The Blair Witch Project
C) Logans Run
D) star wars episode 3
C
which of the following is considered a major new medium of mass communication:
A) memory sticks
B) cellphone calls
C) video games
D) handwritten letters
cyberspace
the internet and the interactions that take place there
C
Worldwide, ____ percent of the population has access to the internet
A) 4
B) 73
C) 24
D) 41
A
in north america ___ percent of the population has access to the internet at home
A) 73
B) 32
C) 4
D) 16
B
the world wide web became the standard for posting documents on the internet because its creator did which of the following:
A) created something that was better than any of the alternatives
B) gave it away for free
C) had support from both Microsoft and Apple
D) came up with a unique idea
B
According to our textbook, video games could be considered a new mass medium because
A) video games are available using a range of technologies
B) the consoles can be used to deliver a range of media content, and video games are becoming a new way to deliver advertising
C) the major video game systems are all protected by the top 6 big media companies
D) none of the above
B
one of the big advantages of distributing a movie over the internet instead of in theaters :
A) the quality of sound is higher online
B) the cost of online distribution is close to zero
C) the quality of the image is higher online
D) you can charge more for people to see it
A
which of the following statements is true about bloggers with china?
A) they can be punished if they are critical of the chinese government
B) they may post anything as long as it doesnt involve sexually explicit images
C) they are allowed to post anything they want
D) they are encouraged to disclose local corruption
D
arthur sulzberger publisher of the NY times said:
A) he always expects to be in the business of putting black ink on white paper
B) the times will be selling newspapers 100 years from now
C) the times is in the business of selling newspapers
D) the times is in the business of selling news and advertising space
advertising
defined by the american marketing association as any paid form of nonpersonal communication about an organization, product, service or idea by an identified sponsor
industrialization
the movement from work done by hand using muscle or water power in small shops to mass production of goods in factories that used energy sources such as steam power or electricity. it was part of the modernization process
modernization
the process of change from a society in which peoples indentities and roles are fixed at birth to a society where people can decide who they want to be, where they want to live, what they want to do and how they want to present themselves to the world.
economy of abundance
an economy in which there are as many or more goods available as there are people who want to or have the means to buy them
brand name
a word or phrase attached to prepackages consumer goods so that they can be better promoted to the general public through advertising and so that consumers can distinguish a given product from the competition
local advertising
advertising designed to get people to patronize local stores, businesses or service providers
direct action message
an advertising message designed to get consumers to go to a particular place to do something specific such as purchasing a product, obtaining a service or engaging in a behavior
national advertising
advertising designed to build demand for a world wide available product or service and that is not directing the consumer to local retail or service outlets
indirect action message
an advertising message designed to build the image of and demand for a product, without specifically urging that a particular action be taken at a particular time and place
advocacy ads
advertising designed to promote a particular point of view rather than a product or service. it can be sponsored by a government, corporation, trade association or nonprofit organization
public service ads
advertising designed to promote the messages of nonprofit institutions and government agencies. the messages are typically produced and run without charge by advertising professionals and the media. many of these ads are produced by the Ad Council
business to business (trade) ads
advertising that promotes products and services directly to other businesses rather than to the general consumer market
open contract
an arrangement that allows advertising agencies to sell space in any publication rather than just a limited few
the big idea
the goal of every advertising campaign – an advertising concept that will grab peoples attention and make them take notice, remember and take action
brand image
the persona attached to a brand and the associated product that gives the product a personality or identity that makes it stand out from similar products and sticks in the mind of the consumer
media planning
the process central to a successful ad campaign of figuring out which media to use, buying the media at the best rates and then evaluating how effective the purchase was.
CPM
cost per thousand exposures to the target audience – a figure used in media planning evaluation
zoned coverage
when a newspaper targets news coverage or advertisements to a specific region of a city or market
drive time
the morning and afternoon commutes in urban area; the captive audience makes this a popular time to advertise on radio
targeting
the process of trying to make a particular product or service appeal to a narrowly defined group. groups are often targeted using demographics, geographics and psychographics
clutter
the large number of commercials, advertising and other nonprogramming messages and interruptions that compete for consumer attention on radio, TV and now the internet
subliminal advertising
messages that are allegedly embedded so deeply in an ad that they cannot be perceived consciously.
integrated marketing communication
an overall communication strategy for reaching key audiences using advertising, public relation, sales promotion and interactive media
product integration
the paid integration of a product or service into the central theme of media content. this is most common in TV programming or movies, but it can be found in books, magazine articles, web pages or even songs
C
The advertising agency department responsible for deciding where to place the advertising is which of the following?
A) creative activity
B) research and planning
C) media planning
D) None of the choices are correct.
C
The advertising agency department responsible for deciding on the target market for the advertising is which of the following?
A) None of the choices are correct.
B) creative activity
C) research and planning
D) media planning
C
The advertising agency department responsible for writing and designing the actual advertisements is which of the following?
A) research and planning
B) media planning
C) creative activity
D) None of the choices are correct.
C
In advertising, the cost of reaching 1,000 consumers with a particular advertisement in a particular medium is know as which of the following?
A) AIC
B) Y2K
C) CPM
D) CPT
B
As of 2011, the fastest growing advertising media type in the U.S. was which of the following?
A) Broadcast television
B) Digital specialty
C) Magazines
D) Cable television
A
Broadcast television networks carry an average of ___________ of advertising and promotion clutter per hour.
A) 15 minutes
B) 10 minutes
C) 12 minutes
D) 8 minutes
A
The process of going from having work done by muscle to being done by machines is which of the following?
A) industrialization
B) modernization
C) standardization
D) urbanization
C
The first major mass medium to be supported primarily by advertising in the U.S. was which of the following?
A) cable television
B) broadcast television
C) newspapers
D) radio
A
An advertisement designed to sell soda to a young, hip audience would be called _________________ advertising:
A) targeted
B) rated
C) zoned
D) contracted
public relations
the management function that establishes and maintains mutually beneficial relationships between an organization and the publics on whom its sucess or failure depends
public
any group of people who share a common set of interests and goals. these include both internal, which are made up of people within the organization and external, which consists of people outside the organization
press agentry
an early form of public relations that involved sending material from the press agent to the media with little opportunity for interaction and feedback. it often involved conduct that would be considered deceptive and unethical today
engineering consent
the application of the principles of psychology and motivation to influencing public opinion and creating public support for a particular position
opinion leadership
a two step process of persuasion that uses respected and influential individuals to deliver messages with the hope of influencing members of a community, rather that just relying on the mass media to deliver the message
intranets
computer networks designed to communicate with people within an organization. they are used to improve two way internal communication and contain tools that allow for direct feedback. they are a tool for communicating with internal publics
media relations
two way interactions between PR professionals and members of the press. these can involve press conferences, press releases, video news releases, or interview. typically they involve the placement of unpaid messages within the standard programming or news content of the medium
crisis
any situation that is perceived by the public as being damaging to the reputation or image of an organization.
D
Ivy Lee suggested that the best way for the railroads to deal with accidents, in terms of the company’s image was to do which of the following?
A) hide the evidence
B) all of the answers here are correct.
C) bribe reporters not to write about them
D) deal with the press openly
B
Edward L. Bernays is remembered for which of the following reasons?
A) he handled the public relations for O.J. Simpson following his criminal trial.
B) he wrote the first book about public relations and taught early public relations courses.
C) he made Elvis a star.
D) he invented the press release.
A
According to Edward Bernays, public relations campaigns should be designed to do which of the following?
A) establish mutually beneficial relationships for the company and various publics.
B) primarily serve the general public.
C) primarily help the press.
D) primarily help the client.
B
A press conference is a tool primarily to communicate with which of the following?
A) none of these choices are correct.
B) the media
C) external publics
D) internal publics