Comp Ch. 11

conventional AI
uses programming that emphasizes statistical analysis to calculate the probability of various outcomes in order to find the best solution
heuristics
used to assist software in reaching conclusions and making recommendations
case-based reasoning
AI software maintains a library of problem cases and solutions (relies on retrieve, reuse, revise, retain)
bayesian network
form of conventional AI that uses a graphical model to represent a set of variables and their relationships & dependencies
behavior-based AI
form of conventional AI that is popular in programming robots..it stimulates intelligence by combining many semi-autonomous modules
expert systems (ES)
programmed to function like a human expert in a particular field
computational intelligence
creates software that can learn for itself
fuzzy logic
reasoning that is approximate rather than precise
fuzzy control system
based on fuzzy logic and used to control machines
evolutionary computation
derives intelligence by attempting many solutions and throwing away ones that don’t work
genetic algorithm
form of evolutionary computation that is used to solve large, complex problems where a number of algorithms or models change and evolve until the best one emerges
neural network
popular form of computational AI that attempts to simulate the functioning of a human brain (programmed to accomplish task through repetition)
turing test (Alan Turing)
method of determining if a machine exhibits human intelligence (a human talks to a human and machine, if it can’t tell which is which, it passes the test)
singularity
point in time that computers exceed humans in intelligence
Blue Brain project
attempt to simulate a human brain at a molecular level in software running on one of the world’s fastest super computers, IBM’s Blue Gene (worked on a mouse)
strong AI
machine w/ intelligence that exceeds human intelligence
robotics
developing mechanical or computer devices to perform tasks that require a high degree of precision or are tedious or hazardous for humans
dull, dirty, dangerous
businesses use robots for ____,_____,_____ jobs
DARPA Grand Challenge
offers $2 million for robot that can cross desert on its own
computer vision
combines hardware & AI software that permit computers to capture, store, and interpret visual images & pictures (kinect)
natural language processing
uses AI techniques to enable computers to generate and understand natural human languages, such as english
speech recognition
enables a computer to understand and react to spoken statements and commands
Dragon NaturallySpeaking
this is popular and allows users to dictate text as they would naturally speak
pattern recognition
speech, handwriting, and face recognition
handwriting recognition
uses AI techniques in software that can translate handwritten characters or words into computer-readable data
intelligent agent (digital assistant)
consists of programs and a knowledge based used to perform a specific task for a person, process, or another program (Siri)
SitePal
greets visitors as they open a website
artificial creativity
branch of AI that works to program computers to express themselves through art, music, poetry, and other outlets
CRCA
facilitate the invention of new art forms that arise out of the developments of digital technologies
AARON
independently paints large, impressive works of art with a paintbrush and canvas
Cybernetic Poet
reads poems by people and creates its own just like it
improviser
writes songs
evolutionary
in artificial intelligence, _____ computation is based on a genetic algorithm to solve complex problems
authentication
Facial recognition is used as a(n) ________ process to tag photos in Facebook.
machine learning
one important characteristic of artificial intelligence is when a device modifies its own behavior based on its ability to learn, also known as _________.
ability to apply judgement to a problem
AI systems typically include all of the following EXCEPT ________________.
Moore’s Law
singularity embraces the idea of _______ and other recent trends in technology.
neural networks
All of the following are AI methodologies that rely on a human to give instructions for problem solving EXCEPT ________.
superintelligent
the concept of singularity predicts that computers will be _______.
expert
a(n) _______ system is software that is knowledgeable in a particular field or area.