Gaps are very efficient at manipulating computer graphics, and their highly parallel structure makes them ore effective than genera; purpose Cups for algorithms where processing of large blocks of data is done in parallel. It is a specialized circuit designed to accelerate the image output in a frame buffer intended for the output to a display. RAM – Random Access Memory A random-access memory device allows data items to be read and written in roughly the same amount of time regardless of the order in which data items are accessed.
Ram takes the form of Integrated circuits. A portion of the computers hard drive Is set for the paging file or a scratch partition, and the combination of physical Ram and he paying file form the system’s total memory. When the system runs lows on physical memory, It can “swap” portions of RAM to paging file to make room for the new data, as well as to read previously swapped information back into RAM. Excessive use of this mechanism results in thrashing and generally hampers overall system performance, mainly because hard drives are far slower than RAM.
Software can “partition” a portion of a computers RAM, allowing it to act as a much faster hard drive that is called a RAM disk. A RAM disk loses the stored data when the computer is shut down, unless memory is arranged to have a standby battery source. Sometimes the contents of a relatively slow ROOM chip are copied to read/write memory to allow for shorter access times. Central Processing unit A central processing unit is the hardware within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical and Input/output operations of the system.
A computer can have more than one CPU, this Is called multiprocessing. All modern Cups are microprocessors, which mean It Is contained to one single chip. Some integrated circuits can contain multiple Cups on also contain peripheral devices, and other component of computer system, this is ladled a system on a chip. Two typical components of a CPU are the arithmetic logic unit (ALL]), which performs arithmetic and logical operations, and the control unit (CUE), which extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes the, calling on the ALL when necessary. Not all computations systems rely on a central processing unit.
An array processor or vector processor has multiple parallel computing elements, with no one unit considered the “centre”. Each motherboard will support only a specific type (or range) of CAP], so you must check the motherboard manufacturer’s specifications before attempting to replace or upgrade CPU in your computer. Modern Cups also have an attached heat sink and small fan that go directly on top of the CPU to help dissipate heat. Overcooking is the process of making a computer or component operate faster than the clock frequency specified by the manufacturer by modifying system parameters (hence the name “overcooking”).
Operating voltages may also be changed (increased), which can increase the speed at which operation remains stable. Most overcooking techniques increase power consumption, generating more heat, which must be dispersed if the chip is to remain operational. Storage Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media used to retain digital data. It is a core function and fundamental component of computers. The central processing unit (CAP’) of a computer is what manipulates data by performing computations.
In practice, almost all computers use a storage hierarchy, which puts fast but expensive and small storage options close to the CPU and slower but larger and cheaper options farther away. Often the fast, volatile technologies (which lose data when powered of are referred to as “memory”, while slower permanent technologies are offered to as “storage”, but these terms can also be used interchangeably. In the Von Neumann architecture, the CPU consists of two main parts: control unit and arithmetic logic unit (ALL]). The former controls the flow of data between the CPU and memory; the latter performs arithmetic and logical operations on data.
Soundboard A sound card or also known as audio card is an internal computer expansion card that facilitates the input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under the control of computer programs. The term sound card is also applied to external audio interfaces that use software to generate sound, as opposed to using hardware inside the PC. Alternatively referred to as a sound board or an audio card, a sound card is an expansion card or integrated circuit that provides a computer with the ability to produce sounds that can be heard by the user either over speakers or headphones.
Below is an image of the Creative Sound Blaster sound card and an example of what a sound card that connects to an expansion slot inside your computer may look like. OTHER PARTS Motherboard A mother board or the main printed circuit board is found in computers and other expandable systems. It holds many of the crucial electronic components of the peripherals. Unlike a backplane, a motherboard contains significant sub system such as the processor and other components.
The motherboard is alternatively referred to as the MBA, inboard, mob, mob, backplane board, base board, main circuit board, planar board, system board, or a logic board on Apple computers. The motherboard is a printed circuit board that is the foundation of a computer and allows the CAP], RAM, and all other computer hardware components to function and communicate with each other. Cooling Computer cooling is required to remove the waste heat produced by computer components, to keep components within permissible operating temperature limits.
Components that are susceptible to temporary malfunction or permanent failure if overheated include integrated circuits such as JPL’s, chippies, graphics cards, and hard disk drives. Components are often designed to generate as little heat as possible, and computers and operating systems may be designed to reduce power consumption and consequent heating according to workload, but more heat may still be produced than can be removed without attention to cooling. Use of heathenish cooled by airflow reduces the temperature rise produced by a given amount of heat. Attention to patterns of airflow can prevent the development of hotshots.
Computer fans are widely used along with heathenish to reduce temperature by actively exhausting hot air. There are also more exotic cooling techniques, such as liquid cooling. There are 2 main types of cooling systems, air cooling and water cooling. Air cooling refers to cooling down the CPU using a fan. Ever since closed-loop liquid coolers (CLC) arrived on the scene, hardware manufacturers have been scrambling to get a slice of the pie. On paper, CLC can achieve better performance than even the most expensive air coolers, and more quietly. The other cooling method is using the liquid to cool down the CAP].
The main problem with this technology is that is can usually be expensive and could also leak onto the mother board. An uncommon practice is to submerge the computer’s components in a thermally, but not electrically, conductive liquid. Although rarely used for the cooling of computers, liquid submersion is a routine method of cooling large power distribution components such as transformers. Personal computers cooled in this manner do not nearly require fans or pumps, and may be cooled exclusively by passive heat exchange between the computer’s parts, the cooling fluid and the ambient air.
Extreme component density supercomputers such as the Cray-2 and Cray TTT used additional liquid-to-chilled liquid heat exchangers for heat removal. The liquid used must have sufficiently low electrical conductivity not to interfere with the normal operation of the computer. If the liquid is somewhat electrically conductive, it may be necessary to insulate certain parts of components susceptible to electromagnetic interference, such as the CPU. 7] For these reasons, it is preferred that the liquid be dielectric.
Evaporation can pose a problem, and the liquid may require either be regularly refilling or sealing inside the computer’s enclosure. According to one company that builds and sells mineral oil submersion kits, they initially found that oil would be lost through a wicking effect up cables that were submerged in the oil. This is no longer the case, as they modified the kit. Case A typical desktop computer consists of a computer system unit, a keyboard, a mouse components of a computer. It is also called the computer case, computer chassis, or imputer tower.
Cases are typically made of steel or aluminum, but plastic can also be used. While most computer cases are rather dull, black, metal boxes, some manufacturers try to give the unit some flair with color and special design elements. The primary function of the computer system unit is to hold all the other components together and protect the sensitive electronic parts from the outside elements. A typical computer case is also large enough to allow for upgrades, such as adding a second hard drive or a higher quality video card. It is relatively easy to open up a imputer system unit to replace parts and install upgrades.
In contrast, it is quite difficult to open up a laptop computer, which is not designed with replacements and upgrades in mind. In most computer system units, the front side contains the elements a user needs frequently, such as the power button, an optical disk drive, an audio outlet for a pair of headphones and a number of USB connections. The back side contains all the other connections – for power, monitor, keyboard, mouse, Internet connection and any other peripheral devices. There are typically more connections than the minimum necessary to allow for expansion.